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Research Report
Vadims Sarajevs
A substantial body of literature, including government policies, acknowledges the important role of greenspace in sustainable development and the creation of attractive and economically vibrant communities. Greenspace refers to the natural environmental components (green and blue spaces) that lie within and between a region’s cities, towns and villages. This Research Report provides a critical review focusing on the most recent evidence (years 2000-2011), of the net economic benefits, both direct and indirect, of initiatives to create or improve greenspace. Despite some conflicting evidence, the Report shows that there is a growing body of research that confirms the benefits. For example, a large-scale study undertaken for the UK National Ecosystem Assessment showed that a percentage point increase in greenspace land use share in a Census ward increases property prices by around 1%. Both expansions of broadleaved woodland and of coniferous woodland were found to have positive effects, with the impact of the former greater than the latter. The Report also highlights gaps in research providing robust estimates of net economic benefits.
A4 | 38 pages | colour | online only
Stock code:FCRP021
Research Note
Alice Broome
Conifer seed provides an important food resource for many woodland mammals, birds and insects, including some of Britain’s rarest species. This Research Note brings together information from a number of sources on cone and seed production by the main conifers planted in Britain. This information can help managers assess the seed resources of their woodlands and manage the woods for the objective of seed production, whether for food or to encourage natural regeneration. Cone and seed crops fluctuate annually and the amount of seed available in good compared with bad seed years, as well as the frequency of good years, depends on a range of factors which include tree species, age of the crop and climatic conditions. Some species such as Scots pine produce moderate but consistent crops of seed every year, whereas others are much more variable. For example, in a good year Japanese larch can provide the greatest amount of seed and energy per area of woodland of any conifer species grown in Britain, whereas in a poor year production is almost negligible. The time of year when seed is released differs between conifer species. Woodland management can influence the continuity of seed supply as well as the quantities of cones and seed produced. Managing to provide a continuous and abundant seed resource involves consideration of woodland age structure and species composition as well as choice of appropriate interventions.
A4 | 12 pages | colour | online only
Stock code:FCRN023
Research Note
Ralph Harmer
During the 20th century large areas of ancient semi-natural woodland were converted to conifer plantations, creating sites now termed PAWS (Plantations on Ancient Woodland Sites). Restoration of these sites to native woodland is a current objective of forestry policy throughout Great Britain. Natural regeneration is often regarded as the preferred method for restocking PAWS but it is a generally unpredictable process and some native species are very difficult to regenerate. A survey of western hemlock PAWS, carried out to identify which species were regenerating and how much of each was present, found a wide range of species either as seedlings or saplings, but at many sites the regeneration was predominantly birch. There were significant relationships between some site characteristics and the occurrence of regeneration, with the presence of nearby parents being especially important. Although there were often large numbers of seedlings present, most were small and patchily distributed, and the proportion of each site stocked with natural regeneration was low. A simple method for determining the proportion of a site stocked is described. While timber species such as oak and beech were regenerating, both seedling numbers and the areas of each site stocked were low. This indicates that natural regeneration may be an inadequate method of restocking and that planting may be required if an objective of management is to produce a good final crop of timber.
A4 | 8 pages | colour | online only
Stock code:FCRN011
Practice Note
W L Mason
Dense natural regeneration of Sitka spruce and other conifers is an increasingly common feature of both recently clearfelled sites and stands managed under continuous cover forestry in upland forests of the British Isles. This regeneration can be managed by combining natural self-thinning in the early stages of stand
establishment with management intervention to cut access racks and carry out selective respacing to favour the best quality trees. The target density should be about 2000–2500 stems per hectare in young regeneration or on windfirm sites where thinning will take place. On less stable sites that are unlikely to be thinned, a single intervention to a target density of 1750–2000 stems per hectare should improve mean tree diameter without compromising timber quality. Managing natural regeneration in continuous cover forestry or mixed stands can be based upon similar principles but the growth of the regenerated trees will be more variable.
A4 leaflet | 6 pages | colour | online only
Stock code:FCPN016
Technical Paper
Neil A. Mackenzie
This Technical Paper summarises the present extent of native woodland in Scotland, which is a substantially greater resource than has previously been recognised, reviews the planting and natural regeneration of native woodlands over the past 5 years, and considers the value of existing survey information in relation to the preparation of the UK Habitat Action Plans. This Paper draws together and reviews information in FC Technical Papers 12 and 17. This publication is still available in hardcopy.
A4 | 30 pages | black & white
Stock code:FCTP030
Technical Paper
Neil A. Mackenzie, Robin F. Callander
Provides a summary account of the present extent, distribution, composition and condition of the native woodlands of the Highlands, which at over 210,000 ha is substantially greater than had previously been recognised. Half is of natural origin and half is of planted origin native woodland. Birch, Scots pine and oak are the commonest native species. There has been a recent increase in the natural regeneration and planting of native species. This publication is still available to order in hardcopy.
A4 | 28 pages | black & white
Stock code:FCTP012
Chris Nixon, Rick Worrell
As Britain’s new conifer forests have matured there has been increasing interest in the use of natural regeneration for restocking after felling. While achieving successful natural regeneration can reduce costs and provide environmental benefits the uncertainties associated with its use can make it difficult for forest managers to decide when and where to rely on natural regeneration in preference to planting. This Bulletin aims to reduce these uncertainties by providing fundamental information on the reproductive cycles of our major conifer species and by outlining factors which affect seed germination and seedling establishment. The management of existing regeneration is also considered. Guidance is given on the identification of forest sites suited to natural regeneration and on the planning and implementation of forest operations which will enhance the likelihood of success. The focus is on the use of natural regeneration to promote regular, even-aged stands. However, the principles can also be applied to irregular, uneven-aged stands.
190 x 250mm | 68 pages | colour photographs
Stock code:FCBU120
J. Evans
Natural regeneration can broadly be defined as raising a forest crop without resorting to planting, direct sowing or coppicing. It is the random nature of exactly where young trees spring up on a site and sometimes of the species which grow that marks out natural regeneration, not freedom from man’s influence. Indeed, many naturally regenerated stands are highly artificial, being the result of frequent intervention before, during and after the regeneration phase to achieve specific well-defined ends. The bulk of natural regeneration concerns raising high forest from seed directly from parent trees. Occasionally stems arising from sucker growth or recruited by singling and storing coppice shoots are a useful supplement to growth from seed or an appropriate system in their own right. They are mentioned briefly.
190 x 250mm | 50 pages | black and white
Stock code:FCBU078
Forestry Commission
The Forestry Commission Journal was introduced as a way to communicate information on a wide range of topics which could not be communicated through 'ordinary official channels', and was intended to be a means of exchanging the opinions and experiences of all members of the staff.

This twenty-third Journal includes information on: Lord Robinson, O.B.E; Notes on the sixth British Commonwealth Forestry Conference, 1952, and forestry in Canada; A visit to Denmark and Sweden; Forest tree breeding in Sweden; Italian and Swiss research; Forest pathology in Eire; Pinus contorta in County Wicklow, Eire; Picea omorika; The British Association Meeting in Liverpool, 1953; Preserving Scots pine strains after the 1953 windblow in North-east Scotland; The Kinver nursery; A method of wWorking heavy nursery soils with a ridge plough; Seedbed root pruning machines; Raising hardwood planting stocks by undercutting; Eradication of rhododendrons; Natural regeneration at 1,200 feet above sea level at Glasfynydd Forest; A grazing experiment in Redesdale Forest; A hybrid larch stand at Staindale, Allerston Forest; A modern approach to thinning practice; Smallwood from conifer thinnings; Lightning and forest fires at Rosedale Forest; Lightning and forest fires at Langdale Forest; Thetford type static water tanks; Observations on windblow in young plantations at Allerston; Rabbit clearance in King’s Forest, 1947 to 1951; Vole damage to trees at ten feet from ground level; Dendroctonus micans, a continental pest of Sitka spruce; Fomes annosus in East Anglian pine sample plots; Forest bridges; The integration of Forest Officers duties in Commission forests and private woodlands; The balance sheet and supporting schedules; Natural history notes from the Highlands; Report of the Lynford School Bird Club; Raids on nest boxes by weasels; Natural vegetation of oakwoods in Alice Holt Forest; The marsh pennywort, hydrocotyle vulgaris, as a weed in Newborough Nursery.

155 x 245mm | 144 pages | black and white
Stock code:FCJO023
Forestry Commission
The Forestry Commission Journal was introduced as a way to communicate information on a wide range of topics which could not be communicated through 'ordinary official channels', and was intended to be a means of exchanging the opinions and experiences of all members of the staff.

This twenty-second Journal includes information on: The European Commission for Forestry and Forest Products; The British Association meeting at Edinburgh, August, 1951; American commentary; A Tour of Danish forests; Denmark diary; Notes on a tour of south and central Sweden; Fertility in forest soils; Natural regeneration of old caledonian Scots pine at Rannoch; The dispersal of hardwood seeds by voles and mice; Rehabilitation at Plym Forest, Devon; The Field Officer and the choice of species; The choice of tree species in Scotland; Extension of nursery experiments into Radnor Forest; Planting beech at West Woods with and without cover; Eccentric growth; European larch races; A report of work on poplars and poplar cultivation in Great Britain, 1951; Aspen poplars in Great Britain; An audible fire warning system at Thetford Chase; Gale warning: windblow in western spruce plantations; A tree shield to prevent injury when tushing Logs; Damage by starlings to trees at Slebech Forest, South Wales; An early proposal for state control of woodland; Rights of way; Fundamentals of road planning; Income and expenditure accounts or cash accounts?; Breckland bird studies; Old brecks or new forests?; A forest herbarium; Literature on forestry in Scotland; Bringing forestry to the public; The Merrick climbed; Roe deer in Austria.

155 x 245mm | 164 pages | black and white
Stock code:FCJO022
Forestry Commission
The Forestry Commission Journal was introduced as a way to communicate information on a wide range of topics which could not be communicated through 'ordinary official channels', and was intended to be a means of exchanging the opinions and experiences of all members of the staff.

This twentieth Journal includes information on: Imported seed; Laboratory germination tests for forest tree seed; Breeding forest trees; The elite tree; Adevice for collecting cones; The storage of beech mast and acorns (silvicultural circular No. 25); Nursery practice (silvicultural circular No. 21); Manuring of nurseries (silvicultural circular No.23); Nursery practice (silvicultural circular No.26); Soil sampling in forest nurseries (appendix to silvicultural circular No.26); The treatment of nursery soils; Acidification at Barcaldine Nursery; Nursery sowing programmes and yields; Selective weed killers in conifer seedbeds and transplant lines; Robinia pseudoacacia; Three provenances of maritime pine in the nursery; Recovery of frosted Sitka spruce seedlings; A note on Australian forestry; The census of woodlands— some impressions; Notes on the state forests in Lincolnshire; Some observations on the Halwill Moors, Devonshire; The Black Wood of Rannoch; Millbuie Forest— Black Isle; Cwmogwr Forest; Selection of species at Radnor Forest; The high elevationexperiment at Beddgelert Forest; Forestry and amenity; Natural regeneration; Recent direct sowing experiments on the Yorkshire Heathlands; Vegetational changes following the afforestation of Calluna Heaths in Yorkshire; Mechanical draining for afforestation; Hints on fencing; Protection of forest fences by tarring of netting; Ploughing plans; Planting bags; The suppression of coppice by weeding; The treatment of a sheep-damaged oak plantation at Nagshead—Forest of Dean; The brashing and thinning of spruces and Douglas fir; Recording of thinning yields in plantations (silvicultural circular No.22); Average yields from thinnings; Estimation of volume of main crop from thinnings in one-tenth acre plots; Crown thinning; The use of stand density indices for describing thinnings; O tempora! O mores!; Treatment of Scots pine plantations in the Black Isle; Larch plantations at Glentress Forest; Rapid growth of Japanese larch in Cornwall; What is hybrid larch?; Height and girth assessment of the parents of the Dunkeld hybrid larch; Observations on ice-dam aged Douglas fir at Kerry forest; Metasequoia glyptostroboides; A rough-barked beech; Highland birch; Three fine specimens of oak in the Forest of Dean; The walnut; Distribution of the moss thuidium tamariscinum in British hardwood stands; The great fire of Hattlich-Eupen, September, 1947; The Chirdon fire; Railway fires and preventive measures; Prevention of fires caused by Commission employees (Director General’s circular); Fire brooms; Grey squirrels at Savernake; Vole damage in the Border forests; A keeper’s day; Vermin trouble; Forest ornithological research in Britain; Ips sexdentatus, an insect pest attacking pine plantations (silvicultural circular No.24); Notes on the die-back of European larch; Coryneum canker of cypress; Dying of groups of Sitka spruce; Bark stripping in the Forest of Dean; The need for care when felling timber; Dragging poles; Notes on the weight and volume of green wood of Scots and Corsican pines (note from Forest Products Research Laboratory); The mechanisation of forest road construction in Scotland; Forest roads and extraction costs; Preservation of existing natural protection for old houses; The use of aerial photographs on census work; Some observations on forest maps and records; The international union of forest research organisations; European Commission on forestry and forest products, Geneva, July, 1948; Organisation and methods at conservancy level; Permanent instructions; The estate section; Filing of proof slips; The staff suggestion scheme (secretary’s circular); Sources of information; Amateur photography in forestry; Touring in Indian forests; New forest common rights; History of Blengdale, Wormgill and Calder; Woodman, square that tree!.

155 x 245mm | 290 pages | black and white
Stock code:FCJO020
Forestry Commission
The Forestry Commission Journal was introduced as a way to communicate information on a wide range of topics which could not be communicated through 'ordinary official channels', and was intended to be a means of exchanging the opinions and experiences of all members of the staff.

This sixteenth Journal includes information on: Progress report on research; A cheap method of ball planting; The French plant-roll machine; Green manuring in forest nurseries; R.E.F.S. excursion to Kent and Sussex, 1936; Chafer damage in nurseries in England and Wales; Progress report on chafer work, 1936; R.S.F.S. summer meeting, 1936; Assessment of checked plantations; Sand-distributing machine; Bath and West show at Neath, 1936; Fires on commission property: some statistics; Rotation of nursery crops; Crown forests in the reign of George III; Commission’s library: new books; Collection and packing of pathological material; Forestry Commission Social Service Association; Notes on forestry in South Africa; Forest of Dean thinning course; Compartmenting hill forests; Afforestation and amenity; Seed solving and plant lfting; Thinning operations; Pine weevil; Spruce on molinia; Deer, foxes and badgers in Division 5, 1937; Forest workers’ holdings, Clipstone Forest; Sowing of birch, oak and beech; Planting derelict coppice areas; Strip planting in coppice at Whitwell; Pre-thinning; Pre-thinning at Rendlesham; Siberian larch in Finland; Damage by red deer in the Highlands; Treatment of birch; Natural regeneration of Scots pine in Glenlov; Miscellaneous notes.

155 x 245mm | 160 pages | black and white
Stock code:FCJO016
Information Note
Sophie Hale
Stock code:FCIN063
Information Note
Ralph Harmer

Information and advice is provided within this note on the effects of deer browsing within different broadleaved woodlands.

A4 leaflet | 2 colour
Stock code:FCIN035
Occasional Paper
R. Worrell, A.J. Nixon
This review collates information on the natural regeneration of oak (Quercus petraea and Quercus robur) in upland Britain and the factors which influence it.
185 x 245mm | 32 pages | black and white
Stock code:FCOP031
Report on Forest Research
Forestry Commission
Report on Forest Research for the year ending March 1969 which includes:

Work carried out by Forestry Commission research and development staff
Forest tree seed; production of planting stock, site studies and the role of minor species; provenance; choice of species; arboriculture; planting; nutrition of forest - crops; forest weed control ; soil moisture, climate and tree growth; drainage; cultivation; regeneration; artificial; natural; stability of crops; ecology ; forest genetics; forest pathology; forest entomology; mammals and birds; statistics; research workshop; photography; publications; research information; planning and economics; work study; timber utilisation development.

Research undertaken for the Forestry Commission at universities and other institutions
- Nutrition experiments in forest nurseries
- Research on forest soils and tree nutrition
- Conifer seedling pathology
- Biology of the fungus crumenula sororia
- Virus diseases of forest trees
- Studies on insect viruses
- Research on the green spruce aphid, elatobium abietinum
- Studies on tit and pine looper moth populations at Culbin Forest
- Fish populations in forest streams
- Environmental studies
- Environmental factors and the growth of Sitka spruce
- Hydrological relations of forest and moorland vegetation
- Fires in forest and heathland fuels

150 x 240mm | 225 pages | black and white
Stock code:FCRFR_1969
Report on Forest Research
Forestry Commission
The report of Forest Research for the year ending March 1951. The report includes:

Summary of the year’s work

Part 1: Work carried out by the Forestry Commission staff:

- Forest tree seed investigations
- Experimental work in nurseries
- Natural regeneration of scots pine woods in the highlands
- Position of planting on ploughed heathland
- Provenance studies
- Work on afforestation problems in Scotland and northern England, 1950-51
- Oak and larch mixtures at the early pole stage
- Survey of plantations on open cast iron stone mining areas in the midlands
- Derelict woodland investigations
- Influence of shade on the height growth and habit of beech
- Climate and soil in relation to beech growth in Britain
- Chemical control of woody weed growth
- Effect of high pruning on bark-peeling costs in Douglas fir
- Forest genetics
- Persistence of late-flushing characters in Norway and Sitka spruce
- Poplars and poplar cultivation
- Studies of growth and yield
- Census of woodlands
- Tree diseases in Great Britain, 1950-51. a general review
- Forest entomology
- Machinery research
- Photography
- Library and documentation work
- Publications

Part 2: Research undertaken for the Forestry Commission by workers attached to universities and other institutions:

- Sub-committee on nutrition problems in forest nurseries—summary report on 1950 experiments
- Researches in soil mycology
- Influence of tree growth on soil profile development
- Mineral nutrient studies in heathland plantations
- Research into the physical and chemical properties of forest soils
- Soil faunal investigations
- Botanical studies of the variation in certain conifer species
- Investigations on fomes annosus in East Anglian pine plantations
- Effect of partial sterilisation on the fungal flora of an old forest nursery soil
- Megastigmus insects attacking conifer seeds
- Nesting of titmice in boxes, 1950

150 x 240mm | 54 pages | black and white
Stock code:FCRFR_1951
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