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Research Note
Nadia Barsoum, Laura Henderson
Planted forests of non-native conifers make up around 36% of Britain’s total wooded area. Increasing the area of native woodlands – including converting non-native conifer to native woodland where appropriate – is an aim of the UK Forestry Standard Guidelines on Biodiversity. It is unclear how much conversion is being implemented, what the motivations might be, or how it is achieved in practice. This study used literature review and questionnaire-based approaches to explore the benefits and drawbacks of conversion, and also to evaluate the attitudes towards, and experiences of, conversion. A majority of respondents are currently, or planning to be, engaged in converting non-native conifer forest management units to native woodland. A range of methods are practised, which aim towards either partial or complete conversion. The level of effort and cost required for conversion varies with local site conditions and/or the proximity of native woodland from which colonisation processes can occur. Some managers whose primary objective is timber production are concerned that conversion will result in a reduction in levels of productivity, which leads to a reluctance to pay for the process of conversion, especially where competition, herbivory and biosecurity threats to native tree species are a potential issue. In contrast, those managers whose primary objective is conservation appear prepared to invest time and resources converting their woodlands. However, many woodland managers are reluctant to undertake large-scale conversion without more guidance and evidence of the benefits.
A4 | 10 pages | colour | online only
Stock code:FCRN024
Practice Note
Brenda A Mayle

This Note provides information on: identifying whether there are deer present and of which species; deciding whether deer are causing damage; the ways in which deer problems can be prevented and knowing where to go for more advice.

A4 leaflet | full colour
Stock code:FCPN006
Technical Paper
Jonathan Humphrey, Robin Gill, Jenny Claridge
Nine papers presented at a workshop funded as part of an EU concerted action programme, aimed at reviewing information on the impact of grazing animals on forest ecosystems, identifying management problems, and determining priority areas for research. There is need for better integration of ecological and economic objectives in forest ecosystems; large herbivores can be used in management to facilitate this integration. This publication is still available in hardcopy.
A4 | 90 pages | black & white
Stock code:FCTP025
Practice Note
Harry W Pepper

This Practice Note discusses in detail the nearet neighbour method and its use as a decision making tool for wildlife management.

A4 leaflet | 2 colour
Stock code:FCPN001
Graeme Swanson, Douglas Campbell, Helen Armstrong
This Bulletin describes a technique for measuring deer abundance in woodlands. The technique is a variation of the faecal accumulation rate method and was developed and refined using data from more than ten years of monitoring and research by Strath Caulaidh Ltd. In justifying their choice of each element of the technique, the authors also provide one of the most comprehensive overviews of dung counting methods available. This Bulletin will be of use to both deer managers and deer researchers as well as being of interest to those considering using a dung counting method to monitor the density of other herbivore species.
190 x 250mm | 72 pages | colour
Stock code:FCBU128
Field Book
Brenda A. Mayle, Andrew J. Peace, Robin M.A. Gill
Section 1 of this Field Guide considers the need to manage deer. Section 2 gives guidance on choosing a suitable census and sampling method. Section 3 presents 21 methods of population estimation, with a worked example provided in most cases. Methods of greatest use to practising deer managers (in terms of time and cost-effectiveness) are described in more detail. Section 4 reinforces the advantages of using census data in the development of effective deer management strategies. Section 5 comprises eleven appendices of useful supporting information. Deer populations in Britain are increasing; this book is a timely and practical guide for woodland managers and wildlife rangers. This publication is still available in hard copy.
135 x 235mm | 96 pages | colour images
Stock code:FCFB018
Information Note
R M A Gill

This information Note provides recommendations for establishing effective deer management and tree protection measures

A4 leaflet | 2 colour
Stock code:FCIN036
Information Note
Ralph Harmer

Information and advice is provided within this note on the effects of deer browsing within different broadleaved woodlands.

A4 leaflet | 2 colour
Stock code:FCIN035
Information Note

This Note describes the influence of domestic stock on woodland habitats and their associated flora and fauna and provides guidance on the use of domestic stock to re-create, maintain and enhance the characteristics of semi-natural woodlands.

A4 leaflet | colour
Stock code:FCIN028
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