Forestry Commission logo

Results

Your query returned 128 results.

Research Report
Vadim Saraev, David Edwards, Gregory Valatin
2017
Modern forest management practice increasingly adopts an ecosystem services approach to account for the multiple benefits and objectives of forestry. It is also increasingly linked to climate change adaptation and mitigation strategies. In view of the priority given to these policy agendas, it is important that new models take an integrated approach to accounting for these issues.

This Research Report focuses on the development of a prototype integrated optimal rotation length model. The model is integrated in the sense that it accounts for timber production, climate change mitigation in terms of carbon sequestration and substitution benefits, and climate change adaptation in relation to windthrow risks. Extending traditional models (which focus upon timber production only), to cover the wider benefits of woodlands in the presence of climate change risks, will contribute to more comprehensive comparisons between management alternatives in terms of net present values, rotation lengths and production volumes.

The research illustrates how several models developed by Forest Research (ForestGALES – wind risk evaluation tool, and CSORT – carbon accounting in forestry) can be linked together to produce answers to complex queries. In this case: what is the economically optimal harvesting time when timber and carbon benefits are included in the presence of wind risk?

Currently the model has been tested using Sitka spruce yield class 14. A key result of this test shows that in some cases, optimality involves leaving stands unfelled for the carbon sequestration benefits, while at some windier sites windthrow risk can be the main factor determining optimum rotation length.
A4 | 32 pages | colour
978-0-85538-968-0
Free
Stock code:FCRP028
Research Report
Amy Binner, Greg Smith, Ian Bateman, Brett Day, Matthew Agarwala, Amii Harwood
2017
Woodlands and trees have a wide-ranging role in the economy but this is often under-valued in conventional economic indicators. For example, woodlands deliver social and environmental benefits – such as outdoor access, biodiversity and carbon sequestration – which are largely unpriced in economic transactions but which have important impacts on the economy and on society’s welfare. This review provides an overview of existing knowledge and evidence on the social and environmental outputs of forestry in Britain and identifies priorities for future research. It uses the concept of the ‘natural factory’ to explain how natural assets such as woodlands contribute to different economic production processes. It evaluates underpinning scientific research, economic valuation evidence, and provides a separate assessment for urban trees and woodlands. It also examines evidence needs relating to key developments in economic thinking and practice including natural capital accounting and a new generation of integrated decision support tools. Despite a substantial extant body of evidence, further research is needed to fill significant gaps in knowledge in order for the full economic contribution of woodlands to be understood.

A summary based on the full review is also available to download as a Research Note.

A4 | 120 pages | colour | online only
978-0-85538-955-0
Free
Stock code:FCRP027

Forest GALES: A wind risk decision support tool for forest management in Britain

Software
Bruce Nicoll, Sophie Hale, Barry Gardiner, Andrew Peace, Bill Rayner, Juan Suarez, Stephen Bathgate, Mark Brady.
2015
Wind damage is a major challenge for the management of forests in Britain, and it has economic, environmental and social consequences. In some areas the threat of wind damage restricts silvicultural options and leads to the use of shortened rotations, giving lower income from timber sales. In order to minimise risk, forest managers need information on the likely timing and magnitude of damage so that they are able to predict the level of risk and assess the implications of different management options. Forest GALES draws together more than 30 years of knowledge and research into a user-friendly decision support tool that will enable forest managers to estimate the probability of wind damage to conifer stands in Britain. The software calculates the wind speed that would be expected to damage a stand of trees and it provides windiness scores (DAMS) for the whole of Britain. It assesses the current level of risk of overturning and stem breakage, and the change in risk over the lifetime of the crop, in addition to assessing the effect on risk of thinning and the creation of brown edges. Forest GALES is able to calculate the risk to any number of stands simultaneously.

For more information about Forest GALES go to: www.forestry.gov.uk/forestgales

Software
978-0-85538-932-1
£50 + VAT
Stock code:FCSW001
Miscellaneous
Forestry Commission (Scotland)
2015
The National Forest Estate is one of Scotland's greatest assets, providing economic, social and environmental benefits to the people of Scotland, wherever they happen to live. Action for the Environment on Scotland's National Forest Estate describes just some of the recent work we have been doing to ensure that our natural and cultural heritage is protected, conserved and enhanced.
A4 | colour | 88 pages | online only
978-0-085538-921-5
Free
Stock code:FCMS129
Research Report
Darren Moseley, Norman Dandy, David Edwards, Gregory Valatin
2014
Evidence indicates that woodland creation is generally a cost-effective method of climate change mitigation, when compared with a range of alternatives. However, engaging landowners and land managers in woodland creation schemes can sometimes prove difficult, and this affects prospects for meeting national woodland planting targets and associated climate change mitigation objectives. Although reluctance to plant woodland is often attributed to the low financial attractiveness of such schemes, wider factors – including long-held cultural views on changing land use and perceptions of the urgency of tackling climate change – can also be important. Insights from behavioural economics indicate that individuals are influenced by a number of cognitive factors in making decisions and that certain ‘nudges’ may help direct choices in a particular direction. Nudges are ways of influencing people’s choices without limiting the options, or appreciably altering their relative costs. There is a range of nudge type approaches that could be used to encourage woodland creation for climate change mitigation. These include addressing perceived barriers to woodland creation, encouraging private woodland creation by highlighting successes and by the public sector leading by example. Implementation of nudge type approaches should be tailored towards different types of landowners and land managers, who may vary in their attitudes, motivations and willingness to plant trees.

Related Research Note - Behavioural policy 'nudges' to encourage woodland creation for climate change mitigation (FCRN018)

A4 | 28 pages | colour | online only
978-0-85538-918-5
Free
Stock code:FCRP023
Forestry Facts & Figures
Forestry Commission
2014
This booklet contains a summary of statistics about woodland and forestry. The complete statistics for 2014 are available on our forestry statistics web page.

Please note - the printed version of this document is an A2 sheet folded to A6. The PDF of the document is set to print at A3 therefore some of the pages will appear upside down.
A2 folded to A6 booklet | colour
978-0-85538-914-7
Free
Stock code:FCFS214
Research Report
Darren Moseley, Gregory Valatin
2013
Ecosystem services refer to the benefits or outputs that people derive from ecosystems. Following the publication of the UK National Ecosystem Assessment there has been a growing interest in assessing the flows of such services and valuing the contribution they make to human well-being. This Research Report draws upon recent evidence (years 2001 to 2012) from the behavioural economics literature to examine how cognitive factors influencing people’s choices and preferences can affect the values that they place upon ecosystem services and upon ecosystem sustainability. The Report shows that there can be a wide variation in the values placed on particular ecosystem services due to a range of factors. For example, the ability of individuals to process information can result in eight times higher variance in respondent values when more complex formats are used. The Report covers methods used to mitigate these effects and highlights where addressing research gaps on how people value ecosystem services could contribute to ecosystem sustainability.
A4 | 24 pages | colour
978-0-085538-895-9
Free
Stock code:FCRP022
Miscellaneous
Forestry Commission Scotland
2014
The Native Woodland Survey of Scotland (NWSS), carried out between 2006 and 2013 has provided the first authoritative picture of Scotland’s native woodlands. It used field survey to identify the location, type, extent, composition and condition of all native and nearly native woods, as well as woods planted on ancient woodland sites (PAWS). This report gives a national overview of results – more information on the survey, a woodland map and supporting datasets can be found at: Native Woodland Survey of Scotland.
A4 | colour | 100 pages
978-0-85538-899-7
Free
Stock code:FCMS126
Forestry Facts & Figures
Forestry Commission
2013
This booklet contains a summary of statistics about woodland and forestry. The complete statistics for 2013 are available on our forestry statistics web page.

Please note - the printed version of this document is an A2 sheet folded to A6. The PDF of the document is set to print at A3 therefore some of the pages will appear upside down.
A2 folded to A6 booklet | colour
978-0-85538-892-8
Free
Stock code:FCFS213
Research Report
Vadims Sarajevs
2012
A substantial body of literature, including government policies, acknowledges the important role of greenspace in sustainable development and the creation of attractive and economically vibrant communities. Greenspace refers to the natural environmental components (green and blue spaces) that lie within and between a region’s cities, towns and villages. This Research Report provides a critical review focusing on the most recent evidence (years 2000-2011), of the net economic benefits, both direct and indirect, of initiatives to create or improve greenspace. Despite some conflicting evidence, the Report shows that there is a growing body of research that confirms the benefits. For example, a large-scale study undertaken for the UK National Ecosystem Assessment showed that a percentage point increase in greenspace land use share in a Census ward increases property prices by around 1%. Both expansions of broadleaved woodland and of coniferous woodland were found to have positive effects, with the impact of the former greater than the latter. The Report also highlights gaps in research providing robust estimates of net economic benefits.
A4 | 38 pages | colour | online only
978-0-85538-865-2
Free
Stock code:FCRP021
Forestry Facts & Figures
Forestry Commission
2012
This booklet contains a summary of statistics about woodland and forestry. The complete statistics for 2012 are available on our forestry statistics web page.

Please note - the printed version of this document is an A2 sheet folded to A6. The PDF of the document is set to print at A3 therefore some of the pages will appear upside down.
A2 folded to A6 booklet | colour
978-0-85538-871-3
Free
Stock code:FCFS212
Research Report
Mariella Marzano, Norman Dandy
2012
Forests are popular places for recreation, but some activities can have negative impacts on wildlife. Land managers have to balance delivery of the social and economic benefits derived from outdoor recreation with nature conservation objectives. This literature review provides an overview of potential disturbance issues and a guide to the evidence on impacts from walking, cycling, horse riding, off-road vehicle use, camping, and other recreational activities that take place in forests. Greatest attention has been directed towards walking, and impacts on soils, vegetation and birdlife. Much of the literature focuses on the physical characteristics of disturbance but there is little social scientific analysis of recreational users, for example on how their values and awareness relate to disturbance, or wider social factors that influence where, when and whether impacts occur. An holistic approach to understanding and managing the interaction of recreation and forest wildlife is needed, which links ecological studies with social data.
A4 | 40 pages | colour | online only
978-0-85538-864-5
Free
Stock code:FCRP020
Research Report
Gregory Valatin
2012
Comparing the cost-effectiveness of different climate change mitigation measures is essential in minimising the cost of meeting national greenhouse gas reduction targets. The costs of different measures and their potential to reduce emissions or sequester greenhouse gases can be depicted using a Marginal Abatement Cost Curve. Previous studies have shown that UK forestry measures are generally highly cost-effective by comparison with government estimates of the social value of carbon used in policy appraisal. However, estimates are sensitive to a range of factors including the species planted, forest management regime, environmental conditions, co-benefits and methodology adopted. This review provides a comparison of previous approaches and underlying assumptions, and summarises the current approach to cost-effectiveness analysis for policy appraisal and evaluation recommended in government guidance. It also provides recommendations for future studies.
A4 | 16 pages | colour | online only
978-0-85538-863-8
Free
Stock code:FCRP019
Practice Guide
Forestry Commission (Scotland)
2012
Diversity in forests is essential to conserve biodiversity and expand habitats, and to contribute towards enhancing landscape quality and recreation opportunities. In addition, introducing species and age diversity throughout a forest can increase their resilience to pests, diseases and fire, and extend economic opportunities.
This Practice Guide offers advice and ideas from which a forest manager may select options that meet their management objectives and are appropriate for their forest. The format of the guidance relates to the decisions which forest managers need to make when they are preparing fully integrated management proposals which will contribute to a Forest Plan.
A4 | 40 pages | colour
978-0-85538-859-1
£5.00
Stock code:FCPG103
Practice Guide
Forestry Commission (Scotland)
2011
Since Medieval times, designed landscapes have evolved and at times changed dramatically in style and character. Throughout all periods and recognised styles however, trees have been an essential feature. In the 20th century social and economic changes proved challenging times for land management, with a combination of estate fragmentation, decline and changed land-use policies, specifically regarding new objectives for forest expansion and management. Now designed landscapes are appreciated for their contribution to local landscape character and the distinctiveness of many of Scotland’s landscapes.
Today the challenge is to protect, restore and rejuvenate the remaining legacy, whilst ensuring arboricultural and silvicultural practices can deal with the changes anticipated from climate change. This guidance is an essential contributor in helping ensure designed landscapes can meet those challenges.
A4 | 60 pages | colour
978-0-085538-846-1
££5.00
Stock code:FCPG102
Research Report
Mark Johnston, Glynn Percival
2012
Our urban forests, the trees and woodlands in and around our towns and cities, provide numerous environmental, economic and social benefits. As the most important single component of green infrastructure these trees have a vital role to play in promoting sustainable communities. In April 2011, for the first time in Britain, the relevant professional bodies concerned with urban trees and the built environment came together to hold a major international research conference. With some 400 delegates, ‘Trees, People and the Built Environment’ was one of the biggest tree conferences ever held in Britain. Hosted by the Institute of Chartered Foresters, the event featured leading expert practitioners and research scientists from around the world presenting papers that ‘showcased’ the very latest research and innovative practice. These conference proceedings are expected to make a significant contribution to the literature on urban forestry and urban greening.

Download individual PDFs of each paper
Buy a printed version

A4 | 264 pages | colour | online only | print option available
978-0-85538-849-2
Free
Stock code:FCRP017
Forestry Facts & Figures
Forestry Commission
2011
This booklet contains a summary of statistics about woodland and forestry. The complete statistics for 2011 are available on our forestry statistics web page.

Please note - the printed version of this document is an A2 sheet folded to A6. The PDF of the document is set to print at A3 therefore some of the pages will appear upside down.
A2 folded to A6 booklet | colour
978-0-85538-852-2
Free
Stock code:FCFS211
Forestry Facts & Figures
Forestry Commission
2010
A summary of statistics about woodland and forestry
PDF | 13 pages | online only
978-0-85538-811-9
Free
Stock code:FCFS210
Forestry Facts & Figures
Forestry Commission
2010
Crynodeb o Ystadegau Ynglyn a Choetiroedd a Choedwigoedd
PDF | 13 pages | online only
978-0-085538-812-6
Free
Stock code:FCFS310
Forestry Facts & Figures
Forestry Commission
2009
A summary of statistics about woodland and forestry
A6 booklet | 2 colour | 20 pages
978-0-085538-790-7
Free
Stock code:FCFS209
Forestry Facts & Figures
Forestry Commission
2009
Crynodeb o ystadegau ynglyn a choetiroedd a choedwigoedd
A6 booklet | 2 colour | 20 pages
978-0-085538-791-4
Free
Stock code:FCFS309
Research Report
David Edwards, Anna Elliott, Suzanne Martin, Jake Morris, Elizabeth A O'brien, Andrew J Peace
2009
This report presents the results of a comprehensive valuation of the current social and economic benefits of forestry, forests and woodlands in Scotland that are derived by the people of Scotland. The research was based upon a typology of seven ‘Forestry for People’ themes which were: employment and volunteering, contribution to the economy, recreation and accessibility, learning and education, health and well-being, culture and landscape, and community capacity. An indicator framework was developed as a basis for defining the scope of the project, reporting of headline findings, and to aid project management. Thirty quantitative indicators covering the seven themes are given in the report. The use of quantitative indicators was supplemented by qualitative research from two contrasting case study regions: the Loch Ness area in the Scottish Highlands, and the Glasgow and Clyde Valley region.
A4 | 206 pages | colour
978-0-85538-782-2
£19.50
Stock code:FCRP101
Forestry Facts & Figures
Forestry Commission
2007
A summary of statistics about woodland and forestry.
A6 booklet
9780855387426
Free
Stock code:FCFS207
Forestry Facts & Figures
Forestry Commission
2007
Crynodeb o Ystadegau Yngl^yn ^a Choetiroedd a Choedwigoedd
]A summary of statistics about woodland and forestry (Welsh).
A6 booklet
9780855387433
Free
Stock code:FCFS307
Forestry Facts & Figures
Forestry Commission
2006
A summary of statistics about woodland and forestry.
A6 booklet
0855387068
Free
Stock code:FCFS206
Forestry Facts & Figures
Forestry Commission
2006
Crynodeb o Ystadegau Yngl^yn ^a Choetiroedd a Choedwigoedd
]A summary of statistics about woodland and forestry (Welsh/English)
A6 booklet
0855387076
Free
Stock code:FCFS306
Research Report
, Marla Emery
2006
The research reported in this publication was designed to document social, cultural, economic and environmental characteristics of current non-timber forest product gatherer practices and perceptions and explore their implications for forest policy and management.

Collecting wild plant materials and fungi is a valued part of the lives of the people who participated in this project, and the findings reinforce and highlight the popularity of woodland product gathering in Scotland. At the same time, the downward pressure on timber prices and the related need to diversify the economic base of rural areas has led woodland managers and policy makers to consider non-timber forest products as potential sources of revenue and rural development opportunities.

Sustainable forest management places an emphasis on managing forests for a broad range of values and uses. Clearly, then, there is a need to understand contemporary non-timber forest product uses and values in Scotland and how these might be managed in a sustainable manner.
A4 | 40 pages | full colour
0855386959
£12.50
Stock code:FCRP008
Forestry Facts & Figures
Forestry Commission
2005
A summary of statistics about woodland and forestry in Great Britain.
A6 booklet
0855386681
Free
Stock code:FCFS205
Forestry Facts & Figures
Forestry Commission
2005
A6 booklet
085538669X
Free
Stock code:FCFS305
Research Report
Sue Weldon
2004
A review of Forestry Commission practice and governance in a changing political and economic context.
A4 | 28 pages | black & white
0855386509
£5.50
Stock code:FCRP007
Forestry Facts & Figures
Forestry Commission
2004
A summary of statistics about woodland and forestry in Great Britain
A6 booklet | 16 pages | 2 colour
0855386398
Free
Stock code:FCFS204
Forestry Facts & Figures
Forestry Commission
2004
Crynodeb o Ystadegau Yngl^yn ^a Choetiroedd a Choedwigoedd
]A summary of statistics about woodland and forestry (Welsh/English)
A6 booklet | 32 pages | 2 colour
0855386401
Free
Stock code:FCFS304
Forestry Facts & Figures
Forestry Commission
2003
A summary of statistics about woodland and forestry in Great Britain.
A6 booklet | 16 pages | 2 colour
0855386061
Free
Stock code:FCFS203
Forestry Facts & Figures
Forestry Commission
2003
Crynodeb o Ystadegau Ynglyn a Choetiroedd a Choedwigoedd ym Mhrydain Fawr.
A summary of statistics about woodland and forestry in Great Britain (Welsh/English).
A6 booklet | 32 pages | 2 colour
085538607X
Free
Stock code:FCFS303
Forestry Facts & Figures
Forestry Commission
2002
A summary of statistics about woodland and forestry in Great Britain.
A6 booklet | 16 pages | 2 colour
0855385731
Free
Stock code:FCFS202
Forestry Facts & Figures
Forestry Commission
2002
Crynodeb o Ystadegau Ynglyn a Choetiroedd a Choedwigoedd ym Mhrydain Fawr.
A summary of statistics about woodland and forestry in Great Britain (Welsh/English).
A6 booklet | 32 pages | 2 colour
085538574X
Free
Stock code:FCFS302
Research Note
Richard Haw
2017
Financial returns from woodland creation have traditionally been generated from sales of timber. In recent years, the voluntary carbon market has established and grown in the UK and landowners can now generate additional revenue from the sale of carbon. The sale of carbon ‘credits’ allows landowners to increase their financial returns by creating woodlands for both timber and non-timber objectives. Even at conservative yield classes and low carbon prices, woodlands can generate £400–£1300 of extra income per hectare when carbon credits are included, and much more for higher yield classes or carbon prices. The costs and benefits of woodland creation projects can vary significantly. However, this Research Note shows that, based on conservative assumptions for the five woodland types analysed here, the net present value for woodland creation increased by around 40–70% for some projects and enabled other projects to produce positive returns from the inclusion of carbon revenue. The analysis also shows that financial returns from commercial rotations can be increased by selecting a longer rotation length that will sequester more carbon. Even at low carbon prices, the extra carbon revenue generated from increasing the rotation length by five years outweighs the reduction in timber value from delayed harvesting. At higher carbon prices a further increase in rotation length could also be substantiated.
A4 | 8 pages | colour | online only
978-0-85538-963-5
Free
Stock code:FCRN031
Research Note
Pat Snowdon, Amy Binner, Greg Smith, Matthew Agarwala, Brett Day, Ian Bateman, Amii Harwood
2017
This Research Note is based on a review by the University of Exeter that evaluated existing knowledge on valuing the social and environmental contributions of British trees and woodlands. It starts by bringing together different (but related) economic terms and concepts in a single framework for understanding how trees and woodlands contribute to economic well-being, then sets out some guiding principles that distinguish this area of study. Tables are used to categorise and to summarise the evidence base of the social and environmental contributions (including consideration of decision support tools and a separate assessment for urban trees). A further table summarises priorities for future research, both to fill gaps in understanding and to develop more advanced techniques and models. The Note concludes that much work has been done on valuing the flows of social and environmental goods and services from trees and woodlands in Britain. A substantial evidence base has developed, particularly in relation to open-access recreation and climate change mitigation. However, major gaps remain in other areas including the role of woodlands in flood alleviation, water quality, physical and mental health, and biodiversity. The Note highlights the need for sound underpinning science and the need for more integrated approaches to valuation, assessment and decision-making tools. Future research efforts should focus on areas where significant additions to existing evidence are realistic and where effort will provide the greatest benefits for policy and operational decision-making.

The full review undertaken by the University of Exeter is also available to download as a Research Report.

A4 | 10 pages | colour | online only
978-0-85538-956-7
Free
Stock code:FCRN027
Research Note
N. Barsoum, R. Gill, L. Henderson, A. Peace, C. Quine, V. Saraev, G. Valatin
2016
This Research Note presents the findings of a study which examined how biodiversity changes with stand age, with a view to incorporating it into optimal forest rotation length modelling. The study reviewed relevant literature and analysed Forestry Commission Biodiversity Assessment Project data. The review revealed no simple or universal response of biodiversity to stand age. However, there was more evidence of biodiversity increasing with stand age than falling (or not changing) and, with regard to habitat requirements for birds and mammals in British forests, there is evidence that after a brief initial increase, biodiversity declines until around 20 years and thereafter increases again. While only a limited number of economic models were found which linked biodiversity and rotation length, two distinct approaches to such work were identified: first, a direct approach which accounts for biodiversity values when estimating net present values and, second, an indirect approach which employs biodiversity management constraints in the modelling. The data analysis also revealed, in most cases, no evidence of significant changes in biodiversity with stand age. Upland Sitka spruce stands were an exception, where biodiversity levels were higher in young forests and again in more mature forests and at a minimum at around 40 years old. Overall, the study found that both the ecological evidence linking biodiversity and stand age and the economic modelling accounting for that linkage are limited. Therefore, a substantial challenge remains to incorporate biodiversity into rotation length models, and recommendations are made to address this.
A4 | colour | 10 pages | online only
978-0-85538-944-4
Free
Stock code:FCRN022
Research Note
Darren Moseley, Gregory Valatin
2014
Evidence indicates that woodland creation is generally a cost-effective method of climate change mitigation, when compared with a range of alternatives. However, engaging landowners and land managers in woodland creation schemes can sometimes prove difficult, and this affects prospects for meeting national woodland planting targets and associated climate change mitigation objectives. Although reluctance to plant woodland is often attributed to the low financial attractiveness of such schemes, wider factors – including long-held cultural views on changing land use and perceptions of the urgency of tackling climate change – can also be important. Insights from behavioural economics indicate that individuals are influenced by a number of cognitive factors in making decisions and that certain ‘nudges’ may help direct choices in a particular direction. Nudges are ways of influencing people’s choices without limiting the options, or appreciably altering their relative costs. There is a range of nudge type approaches that could be used to encourage woodland creation for climate change mitigation. These include addressing perceived barriers to woodland creation, encouraging private woodland creation by highlighting successes and by the public sector leading by example. Implementation of nudge type approaches should be tailored towards different types of landowners and land managers, who may vary in their attitudes, motivations and willingness to plant trees.

Related Research Report - Behavioural policy 'nudges' to encourage woodland creation for climate change mitigation

A4 | 8 pages | colour | online only
978-0-85538-917-8
Free
Stock code:FCRN018
Practice Note
Steve Lee, Guy Watt
2012
Over 90% of the Sitka spruce planted in Britain today is from ‘improved’ planting stock, which is predicted to produce around 25% more timber at final rotation, compared with material imported from the Pacific North West. Forest managers have a choice of improved stock: seedlings raised from seed collected in orchards established around 25 years ago, or rooted cuttings taken from stock plants raised in nurseries using controlled pollinated seed produced by tree breeders. Although the predicted gains in growth rate often appear similar, the predicted gains for quality traits are usually superior for the rooted cutting stock. The down side is that the rooted cuttings are usually more expensive due to the extra production costs at the nursery. Which planting stock gives the best financial return in the long run is dependent on a number of variables. This Practice Note provides guidance to forest managers on how to choose the most appropriate planting stock, depending on thinning regime, rotation length, growth rate, and economic factors such as the premium paid for rooted cutting stock at the time of planting and the likely premium for green logs at harvest.
A4 leaflet | colour | 6 pages | online only
978-0-085538-875-1
Free
Stock code:FCPN018
Research Note
David Edwards
2008
This Research Note summarises the results of a two-year valuation of the current social and economic contribution of forestry, forests and woodlands to the people of Scotland.
A4 | 8 pages | colour | online only
978-0-85538-772-3
Free
Stock code:FCRN102

Forestry Statistics 2006

Forestry Statistics
Forestry Commission
2006
Forestry Statistics is a compendium of statistical information about woodland, forestry and primary wood processing in the UK.
Forestry Statistics is now published in a web format only.
Forestry Statistics 2006
0855387165
Free
Stock code:FCFS006

Forestry Statistics 2005

Forestry Statistics
Forestry Commission
2005
Forestry Statistics is a compendium of statistical information about woodland, forestry and primary wood processing in the UK. Forestry Statistics 2005 has been produced for the first time as an interactive web publication instead of a priced paper publication and pdf file. Forestry Statistics 2005 .
0855386800
Free
Stock code:FCFS005
Forestry Statistics
Forestry Commission
2004
Forestry Statistics is a compendium of statistical information about woodland, forestry and primary wood processing in the UK. Traditionally forestry statistics have focused on forests as a source of timber, and on the use of timber by wood processing industries. However, in recent years, it has been increasingly recognised that a wider range of environmental and social aspects of woodland should be reflected in the statistical information that is collected and published. This publication makes some progress in providing more information about environment and recreation, but it is still weighted towards the traditional topics that have the best quality data. A more balanced set of information is provided by the UK Indicators of Sustainable Forestry, which were subject to consultation during 2001-02, before being published in October 2002.
For more information and the results of other statistical surveys visit the Economics and Statistics web pages at www.forestry.gov.uk/statistics .
0855386460
Free
Stock code:FCFS004
Forestry Statistics
Forestry Commission
2003
Forestry Statistics is a compendium of statistical information about woodland, forestry and primary wood processing in the UK. Traditionally forestry statistics have focused on forests as a source of timber, and on the use of timber by wood processing industries. However, in recent years, it has been increasingly recognised that a wider range of environmental and social aspects of woodland should be reflected in the statistical information that is collected and published. This publication makes some progress in providing more information about environment and recreation, but it is still weighted towards the traditional topics that have the best quality data. A more balanced set of information is provided by the UK Indicators of Sustainable Forestry, which were subject to consultation during 2001-02, before being published in October 2002.
For more information and the results of other statistical surveys visit the Economics and Statistics web pages at www.forestry.gov.uk/statistics .
A4 | 58 pages | 2 colour
0855386118
£15.00
Stock code:FCFS003
Forestry Statistics
2002
This document contains a set of UK indicators of sustainable foresty. The indicators mostly provide information about the present state, and trends over time, of woodlands and their management, rather than measures of driving forces (pressures) or responses.
A4 | 104 pages | 2 colour | online only
0755910257
£10.00
Stock code:FCMS014
Forestry Statistics
Forestry Commission
2002
Forestry Statistics is a new compendium of statistical information about woodland, forestry and primary wood processing in the UK. Traditionally forestry statistics have focused on forests as a source of timber and on the use of timber by wood processing industries. However, it has been increasingly recognised that a wider range of environmental and social aspects of forests and woodlands should be reflected in the statistical information that is collected and published. This publication makes some progress in providing more information, but it is still weighted towards the traditional topics that have the best quality data. A more balanced set of information will be provided by the UK Indicators of Sustainable Forestry.
For more information and the results of other statistical surveys visit the Economics and Statistics web pages at www.forestry.gov.uk/statistics.
A4 | 48 pages | 2 colour
0855385588
Free
Stock code:FCFS001
Forestry Statistics
Forestry Commission
2002
Forestry Statistics is a compendium of statistical information about woodland, forestry and primary wood processing in the UK. Traditionally forestry statistics have focused on forests as a source of timber, and on the use of timber by wood processing industries. However, in recent years, it has been increasingly recognised that a wider range of environmental and social aspects of woodland should be reflected in the statistical information that is collected and published. This publication makes some progress in providing more information about environment and recreation, but it is still weighted towards the traditional topics that have the best quality data. A more balanced set of information is provided by the UK Indicators of Sustainable Forestry, which were subject to consultation during 2001-02, before being published in October 2002.
For more information and the results of other statistical surveys visit the Economics and Statistics web pages at www.forestry.gov.uk/statistics .
A4 | 54 pages | 2 colour
0855385774
£15.00
Stock code:FCFS002
Technical Paper
Jonathan Humphrey, Robin Gill, Jenny Claridge
1998
Nine papers presented at a workshop funded as part of an EU concerted action programme, aimed at reviewing information on the impact of grazing animals on forest ecosystems, identifying management problems, and determining priority areas for research. There is need for better integration of ecological and economic objectives in forest ecosystems; large herbivores can be used in management to facilitate this integration. This publication is still available in hardcopy.
A4 | 90 pages | black & white
0855383550
£5.00
Stock code:FCTP025
Technical Paper
Andrew H. Chadwick, Simon J. Hodge, Philip R. Ratcliffe
1997
The red fox is a generalist predator and scavenger, adapted to a range of habitats. An account of fox biology in relation to forestry is given, information on fox population trends is reviewed, and recommendations made with regard to strategies for management of the economic impact of foxes. This information is of value to forest managers and other land managers. This publication is still available in hardcopy.
A4 | 48 pages | black & white
085538350X
£5.00
Stock code:FCTP023
Technical Paper
Harriet Palmer, Barry Gardiner, Max Hislop, Alan Sibbald, Alan Duncan
1997
Proceedings from a highly topical seminar, the main objectives of which were: to review current research and development on the use of trees for shelter; to increase the awareness of shelter-related work being undertaken in the UK; to identify priority areas for future research and potential collaborative links. Papers were presented on trees for shelter in relation to energy conservation, pollution reduction, animal production, wildlife and farm economics. This publications is still available in hardcopy.
A4 | 76 pages | black & white
0855383488
£5.00
Stock code:FCTP021
Technical Paper
Adrian Whiteman
1996
Presents models of wood supply and wood product demand for the UK to 2050. The forecasts show that it is likely that wood supply will increase with demand up to 2025. After that, if no new planting is undertaken, supply will fall while demand will continue to rise (although in this respect there is a wide margin of uncertainty). A continuous level of supply would be desirable for the development of the domestic wood-processing industry. The level of new planting required to achieve this is discussed. This publication is still available to order in hardcopy.
A4 | 20 pages | black & white
0855383461
£5.00
Stock code:FCTP019
Technical Paper
C.P. Mitchell, R.J. Cooper, J. Ball, B. Gunneberg, J.J. Swift
1994
In 1990, the future of the Private Woodlands Survey was reconsidered by the Forestry Commission. Its original purpose had been to inform interested parties on reviews of planting grants. In recent years, however, a change in the economic rationale underlying grant-aid to private woodland owners has been increasingly recognised. This means that the primary basis for determining the levels of grants is an assessment of the consequent public benefits, rather than of the cost incurred by the owner. At the same time, it was considered that information on forestry costs could be obtained more cost-effectively through periodic consultations with practitioners in the industry, without having to carry out a full-scale survey. Accordingly, in 1991, the Forestry Commission decided to wind down the survey and publish the results of the final three years' work in the form of this Technical Paper. This publication is still available to order in hardcopy.
A4 | 49 pages | colour cover
0
£5.00
Stock code:FCTP005
National Forest Inventory
Forestry Commission
2014
This Inventory Report is one of a series of publications reporting the outputs of the Forestry Commission National Forest Inventory. It forms part of the 25-year forecast of softwood availability series, which includes the following reports:
• Standing timber volume for coniferous trees in Britain
• 25-year forecast of softwood timber availability
• 25-year forecast of standing coniferous volume and increment
• 25-year forecast of coniferous carbon stocks
• 25-year forecast of coniferous biomass stocks
A4 | 14 pages | colour | online only
978-0-85538-907-9
Free
Stock code:FCNFI113
National Forest Inventory
Forestry Commission
2014
This Inventory Report is one of a series of publications reporting the outputs of the Forestry Commission National Forest Inventory. It forms part of the 25-year forecast of softwood availability series, which includes the following reports:
• Standing timber volume for coniferous trees in Britain
• 25-year forecast of softwood timber availability
• 25-year forecast of standing coniferous volume and increment
• 25-year forecast of coniferous carbon stocks
• 25-year forecast of coniferous biomass stocks
A4 | 14 pages | colour | online only
978-0-85538-908-6
Free
Stock code:FCNFI114
National Forest Inventory
Forestry Commission
2012
This Inventory Report is one of a series of publications reporting the outputs of the Forestry Commission National Forest Inventory. It forms part of the 25-year forecast of softwood availability series, which includes the following reports:
• Standing timber volume for coniferous trees in Britain
• 25-year forecast of softwood timber availability
• 25-year forecast of standing coniferous volume and increment
• 25-year forecast of coniferous carbon stocks
• 25-year forecast of coniferous biomass stocks
A4 | 20 pages | colour | online only
978-0-085538-866-9
Free
Stock code:FCNFI112
National Forest Inventory
Forestry Commission
2008
This publication covers the management and biodiversity data collected during the first National
Inventory of Woodland and Trees (NIWT1) that were not published with the main statistics on
woodland area. Many of these data were collected for the first time during this National Inventory
project.
A4 | 50 pages | colour
978-0-085538
Free
Stock code:FCIR002
National Forest Inventory
2003
This Report presents the results for Great Britain from the Forestry Commission National Inventory of Woodland and Trees.
For more information and the results of the survey at country, region and county level (as appropriate), visit the National Inventory web pages at www.forestry.gov.uk/inventory
A4 | 58 pages | full colour
0855386029
£15.00
Stock code:FCIR000
National Forest Inventory
2002
This Report presents the results for Scotland from the Forestry Commission National Inventory of Woodland and Trees.
A4 | 58 pages | full colour
0855385405
£15.00
Stock code:FCIR100
National Forest Inventory
2002
This Report presents the regional results for London from the Forestry Commission National Inventory of Woodland and Trees: England.
For more information visit the National Inventory web pages at www.forestry.gov.uk/inventory
A4 | 50 pages | full colour | online only
0855385510
£15.00
Stock code:FCIR207
National Forest Inventory
2002
This Report presents the regional results for South West from the Forestry Commission National Inventory of Woodland and Trees: England.
For more information and the results of the survey at county level, visit the National Inventory web pages at www.forestry.gov.uk/inventory
A4 | 58 pages | full colour
0855385499
£15.00
Stock code:FCIR205
National Forest Inventory
2002
This Report presents the regional results for South East from the Forestry Commission National Inventory of Woodland and Trees: England.
For more information and the results of the survey at county level, visit the National Inventory web pages at www.forestry.gov.uk/inventory
A4 | 58 pages | full colour
0855385529
£15.00
Stock code:FCIR208
National Forest Inventory
2002
This Report presents the regional results for North West from the Forestry Commission National Inventory of Woodland and Trees: England.
For more information and the results of the survey at county level, visit the National Inventory web pages at www.forestry.gov.uk/inventory
A4 | 58 pages | full colour | online only
0855385537
£15.00
Stock code:FCIR209
National Forest Inventory
2002
This Report presents the regional results for North East from the Forestry Commission National Inventory of Woodland and Trees: England.
For more information and the results of the survey at county level, visit the National Inventory web pages at www.forestry.gov.uk/inventory
A4 | 58 pages | full colour | online only
0855385456
£15.00
Stock code:FCIR201
National Forest Inventory
2002
This Report presents the regional results for East of England from the Forestry Commission National Inventory of Woodland and Trees: England.
For more information and the results of the survey at county level, visit the National Inventory web pages at www.forestry.gov.uk/inventory
A4 | 58 pages | full colour
0855385502
£15.00
Stock code:FCIR206
National Forest Inventory
2002
This Report presents the regional results for West Midlands from the Forestry Commission National Inventory of Woodland and Trees: England.
For more information and the results of the survey at county level, visit the National Inventory web pages at www.forestry.gov.uk/inventory
A4 | 58 pages | full colour | online only
0855385472
£15.00
Stock code:FCIR203
National Forest Inventory
2002
This Report presents the regional results for East Midlands from the Forestry Commission National Inventory of Woodland and Trees: England.
For more information and the results of the survey at county level, visit the National Inventory web pages at www.forestry.gov.uk/inventory
A4 | 58 pages | full colour | online only
0855385480
£15.00
Stock code:FCIR204
National Forest Inventory
2002
This Report presents the regional results for Yorkshire and the Humber from the Forestry Commission National Inventory of Woodland and Trees: England.
For more information and the results of the survey at county level, visit the National Inventory web pages at www.forestry.gov.uk/inventory
A4 | 58 pages | full colour
0855385464
£15.00
Stock code:FCIR202
National Forest Inventory
2002
This Report presents the results for Wales from the Forestry Commission National Inventory of Woodland and Trees.
This Report is also available in Welsh:Download here (PDF)
For more information and the results of the survey at county level, visit the National Inventory web pages at www.forestry.gov.uk/inventory
A4 | 118 pages | full colour
0855385421
£15.00
Stock code:FCIR300
National Forest Inventory
2001
This Report presents the regional results for the Highlands from the Forestry Commission National Inventory of Woodland and Trees: Scotland.
A4 | 24 pages | 2 colour
0855385324
£5.00
Stock code:FCIR109
National Forest Inventory
2001
This Report presents the regional results for the Western Isles from the Forestry Commission National Inventory of Woodland and Trees: Scotland.
A4 | 24 pages | 2 colour
0855385332
£5.00
Stock code:FCIR110
National Forest Inventory
2001
This Report presents the results for England from the Forestry Commission National Inventory of Woodland and Trees.
The Report includes a full-colour foldout wallchart showing woodland distribution for England.
A4 | 58 pages | full colour
0855385413
£15.00
Stock code:FCIR200
Bulletin
Max Hislop (Ed.), Jenny Claridge (Ed.)
2000
The main aim of this Bulletin is to provide practical advice about the establishment and management of a range of agroforestry practices derived from a decade of research in the United Kingdom (UK). In addition, the Bulletin describes the interactions of trees with crops and livestock, the environmental, social and economic impacts of these interactions and how best to manage them to meet the objectives of farmers and/or policy-makers. To meet these aims the research findings and recommendations have been brought together in 11 chapters which are grouped into four sections: Background, Best practice and current research, Environmental and landscape impacts, and Economic and social impacts. There are few commercial examples of agroforestry systems in the UK. This Bulletin therefore sets out to raise awareness about the potential of agroforestry as a land-use option in the UK. It is directed at agricultural and woodland advisers, as well as farmers and other landowners.
190 x 250mm | 152 pages | colour photographs
0-85538-414-X
£25.00
Stock code:FCBU122
National Forest Inventory
2000
This Report presents the regional results for Fife from the Forestry Commission National Inventory of Woodland and Trees: Scotland.
A4 | 24 pages | 2 colour | online only
0855385189
£5.00
Stock code:FCIR108
National Forest Inventory
2000
This Report presents the regional results for Tayside from the Forestry Commission National Inventory of Woodland and Trees: Scotland.
A4 | 24 pages | 2 colour | online only
0855385170
£5.00
Stock code:FCIR107
National Forest Inventory
2000
This Report presents the regional results for Central from the Forestry Commission National Inventory of Woodland and Trees: Scotland.
A4 | 24 pages | 2 colour | online only
0855385162
£5.00
Stock code:FCIR106
Bulletin
D. B. Paterson, W. L. Mason
1999
This Bulletin describes how foresters can use cultivation to provide a favourable site for tree survival and growth. A guiding principle is to work within the limitations of the site and to appreciate the effects of cultivation upon the microsite and the wider forest environment. The wide range of cultivation techniques now available means that there can be no universal prescription and cultivation will not be appropriate in all circumstances. The forest manager can use this guide to formulate prescriptions and select techniques appropriate to different site types and environmental considerations. In outlining options, the recommendations favour those techniques that present the least risk of damage and which best promote rooting patterns favourable to the stability of trees and stands. Understanding the usefulness of different types of cultivation is critical to the efficient and sustainable management of the forest estate in Britain. Section 1 covers the impacts of cultivation on site conditions (soil and air temperature, soil moisture, bulk density and nutrients). It also considers effects on the environment (landscape, archaeology, soil, flora, fauna, etc.), and discusses the effects of cultivation on tree survival, growth, yield and stability. Section 2 considers a range of factors that influence the choice of an appropriate cultivation technique. Site characteristics and proposed woodland type are discussed. Cultivation recommendations for the major soil groups are given. The advantages and disadvantages of various cultivation techniques are discussed and guidance given on the selection of appropriate machinery. Finally, an economic evaluation of the benefits of cultivation is presented.
190 x 250mm | 120 pages | colour photographs
0-85538-400-X
£14.00
Stock code:FCBU119
National Forest Inventory
1999
This Report presents the regional results for Lothian from the Forestry Commission National Inventory of Woodland and Trees: Scotland.
A4 | 24 pages | 2 colour | online only
0855385006
£5.00
Stock code:FCIR103
National Forest Inventory
1999
This Report presents the regional results for the Borders from the Forestry Commission National Inventory of Woodland and Trees: Scotland.
A4 | 24 pages | 2 colour | online only
0855383895
£5.00
Stock code:FCIR102
National Forest Inventory
1999
This Report presents the regional results for Strathclyde from the Forestry Commission National Inventory of Woodland and Trees: Scotland.
A4 | 24 pages | 2 colour | online only
0855385073
£5.00
Stock code:FCIR104
National Forest Inventory
1999
This Report presents the regional results for Dumfries and Galloway from the Forestry Commission National Inventory of Woodland and Trees: Scotland.
A4 | 24 pages | 2 colour | online only
0855385065
£5.00
Stock code:FCIR105
National Forest Inventory
1997
This Report presents the regional results for Grampian from the Forestry Commission National Inventory of Woodland and Trees: Scotland.
A4 | 24 pages | 2 colour | online only
0855383631
£5.00
Stock code:FCIR101
Bulletin
J.F. Benson, K.G. Willis
1992
The Bulletin estimates the consumer surplus (or net monetary benefit) from informal recreation on the Forestry Commission estate. The Forestry Commission’s estate of more than 1 million hectares is managed for mutiple-use and multiple benefits. Calculations of the costs and benefits of timber production are made in financial terms using discounted cash flow models. Most of the other uses and benefits, whether informal recreation, wildlife and landscape conservation, carbon fixing or job creation in rural areas, cannot easily be evaluated in this way, either because no markets exist or because many of the benefits are ‘public’ goods. However, techniques do exist for estimating the benefits of such uses and resources in monetary terms, and these are described. A cluster analysis was used to select a representative sample of 14 Forest Districts in which recreational visitor surveys were made. Calculations of consumer surplus were based on a travel cost method of valuation. The average consumer surplus per visit is £2 at 1988 prices. The sensitivity of this result to different assumptions is examined and compared with the limited number of previous studies in Great Britain. Various estimates of visitor numbers, by Forest District and in total, are reviewed. The figures are combined to estimate a total value of £53 million per year (1988 prices) for non-priced informal recreation on the Forestry Commission estate in Great Britain. The average is £47 per hectare but with a very wide variation between the extremes £1 per hectare in remote areas to over £400 per hectare in exceptional cases such as the New Forest, related to accessibility and other factors. The total benefit exceeds the estimate of £10 million quoted by the National Audit Office in 1986.
190 x 250mm | 56 pages | colour images
0-11-710308-X
£7.50
Stock code:FCBU104
Bulletin
J.N. Smithies
1991
The dimensional accuracy with which timber is sawn is important both for its marketability and for its economic production. This Bulletin describes quality control techniques that can be used for sampling and measuring sawn timber taken from the production line in softwood sawmills. The dimensions obtained from the measuring process can be used to quantify and analyse the accuracy with which timber is being produced in the sawmill. The results obtained from the analysis of the measurements can then be used to give pointers as to which part of the production line should be examined to improve or optimise the sawing accuracy.
190 x 250mm | 32 pages | colour images
0-11-710295-4
£3.00
Stock code:FCBU096
Bulletin
D.C. Mitlin
1987
This Bulletin describes the development of the long-term price assumptions used by the Forestry Commission for estimating future timber revenues.
190 x 250mm | 20 pages | black and white
0-11-710206-7
£2.00
Stock code:FCBU068
Bulletin
J.L. Innes
1987
The aim of this Bulletin is to summarise the current information available on the interactions between air pollution and forests. While it is primarily concerned with Great Britain, air pollution is an international problem, so information from other countries has been included. Pollution from point sources, such as aluminium smelters and brickworks, has not been included, and this paper deals mainly with long-range pollution and its possible regional-scale effects. A technical account of the formation of atmospheric pollutants is given. This is followed by a more general discussion of acidification and its effects on the environment. The symptoms shown by trees involved in the forest decline seen on the continent are described together with data from various national surveys; a major part of the report is concerned with the possible causes of this decline and its economic implications. Finally, research being undertaken by the Forestry Commission into the possible effects of air pollution on trees is described.
190 x 250mm | 44 pages | colour photographs
0-11-710209-1
£2.60
Stock code:FCBU070
Bulletin
D.A. Burdekin (Ed)
1983
This Bulletin contains the proccedings of the European Economic Community Research Seminar, Guernsey, Channel Islands, 30th March — 1st April 1982. The papers summarise the results of recent research undertaken by scientists from six members of the European Community.
190 x 250mm | 126 pages | black and white
0-11-710153-2
£6.00
Stock code:FCBU060
Bulletin
C.I. Carter, N.R. Maslen
1982
This Bulletin contains Field keys and morphological keys with descriptions and illustrations for the identifications of the 27 aphids of the family Lachnidae known to occur on conifers in Britain. The strong influence of their host plant upon these insects and the impact some of them have on the growth of forest trees and amenity plantations throughout the world is discussed. The importance of conifer aphid honeydew from various species in the production of forest honey is reviewed. Accounts of each species include recent synonymy, descriptions of morphs, type of life cycle, host plants, distribution and economic importance.
185 x 250mm | 84 pages | black and white
0-11-710151-6
£3.50
Stock code:FCBU058
Bulletin
A.J. Grayson (Ed)
1976
At the Fifteenth Congress of the International Union of Forest Research Organisations (I.U.F.R.O.) held at Gainesville, Florida in March 1970, a Working Party was set up to consider methods of evaluating the contribution of Forestry to economic development. This Bulletin contains the papers presented at the meeting of this Working Party together with a report of the discussions held in the Headquarters of the Forestry Commission in Edinburgh in the autumn of 1975.
185 x 250mm | 128 pages | black and white
0-11-710148-6
£3.00
Stock code:FCBU056
Bulletin
G.J. Hamilton (Ed)
1976
This Bulletin contains the papers presented at a meeting of the International Union of Forest Research Organisations (IUFRO) Project Group P4.02 'Economics and Harvesting of Thinnings', held in Edinburgh from 30 September until 2 October 1974.Papers were invited on various aspects of thinning. The first session (Papers 1-7) mainly concerned the yield aspects of thinning. The second session (Papers 8-10) was devoted principally to the damage caused to sites and stands by harvesting operations. The third session (Papers 11-15), covered, in the main, the harvesting operation. The papers are given more or less in the order in which they were presented, and a much shortened edited version of the discussion attending each paper is given immediately following the paper.
185 x 250mm | 148 pages | black and white
0-11-710147-8
£2.50
Stock code:FCBU055
Bulletin
P.A. Wardle (Ed)
1971
At the Fourteenth Congress of the International Union of Forest Research Organisations held in Munich in September, 1967 a Working Group was set up in the Economics Section, Section 31, to consider the contribution of operational research to studies in the field of the managerial economics of forestry. In September, 1970, members of this working group met at the Research Station of the Forestry Commission, Alice Holt Lodge, Farnham, Surrey, England. This Bulletin contains the papers presented at that meeting and a record of the discussion.
185 x 250mm | 172 pages | black and white
0+11-710135-4
£1.55
Stock code:FCBU044
Bulletin
F.C. Hummel, G.M.L. Locke, J.N.R.Jeffers, J.M. Christie
1959
The systematic measurement of sample plots in stands of growing timber provides the data for the compilation of yield tables and other estimates of increment which are essential to the economic management of woodlands. In order that such measurements shall be strictly comparable, both as between one sample plot and another, and within the same plot as measured on different occasions, a precise method must always be followed. This bulletin sets out in detail the procedure that has been developed by the Forestry Commission’s research officers since such measurements were begun in Britain, under the Board of Agriculture, forty-five years ago. Though intended primarily for the staff engaged on such work, it is believed that it contains much information of value to all who are concerned with the raising and accurate measurement of timber trees, both at home and abroad.
185 x 250mm | 124 pages | blakc and white
0
Free
Stock code:FCBU031
Bulletin
Forestry Commission
1946
This Bulletin provides an update to the original bulletin from 1937. Spring frosts add considerably to the difficulties of establishing young plantations. Investigations which the Imperial Forestry Institute had been carrying out for the Forestry Commission since 1929 were already yielding interesting results when the great May frosts of 1935 occurred. These frosts were so widespread and did so much damage that it was decided to study the whole subject in detail. This Bulletin deals with the problems of how to recognise frosty areas in advance of planting, and how to assess the frost-hardiness of different species of trees. Detailed attention is given to the climate of the ground air zone within which trees live and to susceptibility of forest trees to damage by spring frost. The main concern is with trees of economic importance but the lists indicating the relative frost-hardiness of numerous ornamental trees and shrubs will perhaps also be useful to gardeners and others who plant for amenity.
155 x 250mm | 130 pages | black and white | 2nd edition
0
Free
Stock code:FCBU018
Bulletin
Forestry Commission
1937
Spring frosts add considerably to the difficulties of establishing young plantations. Investigations which the Imperial Forestry Institute had been carrying out for the Forestry Commission since 1929 were already yielding interesting results when the great May frosts of 1935 occurred. These frosts were so widespread and did so much damage that it was decided to study the whole subject in detail. This Bulletin deals with the problems of how to recognise frosty areas in advance of planting, and how to assess the frost-hardiness of different species of trees. Detailed attention is given to the climate of the ground air zone within which trees live and to susceptibility of forest trees to damage by spring frost. The main concern is with trees of economic importance but the lists indicating the relative frost-hardiness of numerous ornamental trees and shrubs will perhaps also be useful to gardeners and others who plant for amenity.
155 x 250mm | 150 pages | black and white
0
Free
Stock code:FCBU018
Bulletin
Forestry Commission
1923
The procedure to be followed in cultivating poplars differs in some respects from that adopted in the case of other species, and necessarily varies somewhat according to local circumstances. In this bulletin an attempt is made to indicate which kinds of poplar it is advisable to cultivate and how they should be planted and treated with a view to the economic production of timber.
155 x 230mm | 63 pages | black and white
0
Free
Stock code:FCBU005
Management handbook
R.W. Matthews, T.A.R. Jenkins, E.D. Mackie, E.C. Dick
2016
Yield models are one of the foundations of forest management. They provide information about the patterns of tree growth and potential productivity that can be expected in forest stands of different tree species, with varying growth rates, when managed in different ways. Yield models are in daily use by forest managers and practitioners when making decisions about the future management of a forest – whether it is an individual stand of trees or a whole estate. They are also applied when forecasting future levels of production, when making commitments to supply timber markets, and for planning and scheduling forest operations. The outputs of yield models support many other calculations and models relevant to the evaluation of forests and forestry. These include analyses of the development of forest structure at the stand and landscape scales, the modelling of timber and wood properties, the estimation of forest biomass and carbon stocks, the modelling of forest greenhouse gas balances and the economic evaluation of forest policies and forest management options. This handbook is designed for those who would like to know more about the theory underpinning yield modelling. It will be of use to forest and woodland managers and practitioners, researchers and students.

The Forest Yield software is available from: www.forestry.gov.uk/forestyield

A5 | 96 pages | colour
978-0-85538-942-0
£19.00
Stock code:FCBK048
Journal
Forestry Commission
1958
The Forestry Commission Journal was introduced as a way to communicate information on a wide range of topics which could not be communicated through 'ordinary official channels', and was intended to be a means of exchanging the opinions and experiences of all members of the staff.

This twenty-seventh Journal includes information on: Fire cartoon; A visit to Canada; Alice Holt Lodge and forest; Notes on new acquisitions: England: Miterdale, Cambs., Wolscy Park, Staffs. Scotland: Glen Etive and Barrs; Rannoch Barracks; Dali; The permanent seed identification code; The treatment of the less familiar broadleaved tree seeds; Undercutting of conifer seedlings; Afforestation of open-cast coal workings at Aberpergwm. Coed Morgannwg; Foel Fynyddau. A mountain sterilised by old copper works; The development of radio communications in the Forestry Commission; Water dams for fire fighting; Wild goats at Abergynolwyn, Dovey Forest; Observations on vole attacks at Challock and Lyminge Forests in East Kent; The training of badgers at Pershore Forest; The felling of thinnings; Report on the forest workers’ course at Laubau in Bavaria; Forest worker’s course at the Forest Labour School, Arnhem, Holland; Maintenance of Jo-bu saw chains; Book review: Sandvik forestry saws; A new quarter-girth tape; Short shaft axes; Long handled felling tongs; Log refreshment chalet at Symonds Yat Rock; A creosoted sliding gate; Dwelling house made from thinnings timber; Timber conversion; First aid in agriculture; Safety hints for circular saws; Home grown softwood in London Docks; Divider as a measuring device in the field in forestry; Economics in forestry; Working plan for Tentsmuir, Fife; Measurement of periodic increment of young conifer trees; Bibliography on Windblow; Bibliography of Effect of Sea Spray on Trees and Seaside Tree Planting; Telling the forestry story; Let us see it in print; List of finds from Staple Howe, Scardale Forest, sent to the British Museum; Fire tower at Emery Down, New Forest; Postscript to the Scottish Woodlands Census, 1947-49; Christmas tree cartoon.

155 x 245mm | 202 pages | black and white
0
Free
Stock code:FCJO027
Journal
Forestry Commission
1956
The Forestry Commission Journal was introduced as a way to communicate information on a wide range of topics which could not be communicated through 'ordinary official channels', and was intended to be a means of exchanging the opinions and experiences of all members of the staff.

This twenty-fifth Journal includes information on: A forestry visit to Russia; Bison in Poland, polish cultural institute; The care and use of cross-cut saws; The Mid-Wales survey; Planting forests in Wales The Chilterns project; History of Ratagan Forest; Historial notes on the forests of Alice Holt and Woolmer; Four Cornish forests; The Crarae forest garden; A working plan for policy woodlands; Lake Vyrnwy forest, Montgomeryshire; Reay Forest, Sutherland; Notes on the British Association meeting at Sheffield—September, 1956 Three new nature reserves; Sunbiggin tarn and moor; A visit to Coniston Old Man; The collection of cones from tall trees; Ledmore nursery; Notes on farm implements used in forest practice; Sowing trials of graded acorns at Willingham Nursery in 1953; Work on limestone soils at Dalton Forest, Westmorland— 1951-55; Afforestation of iron stone workings in Northamptonshire; Planting the hard lee flow; Tine ploughing at Speymouth; Japanese larch on an area of rank weed growth; The economic approach to weeding in the establishment of trees; A note on some mixed conifer plantations in Mid-Wales; Some notes on the management of natural ash crops; Cultivation of willows for basket making; Eucalyptus at Whittingehame Estate, East Lothian; Araucarias at Monreith Estate, Wigtownshire; Notes on some North American trees; Prevent forest fires; Fire on the hills; Introducing pyrology; A handy trailer for fire fighting; Notes on fire protection at Lyminge Forest, Kent; The control of deer in Commission forests, with particular reference to England; The roe dee; Fighting the pine beauty moth with the todd insecticidal fog applicator; Needle diseases of conifers; Forest engineering economics; British forestry development in the early twentieth century; Education for administration; Should we go back?; Discounts and decimals; A fish hatchery; Greenfinches and Lawson cypress; British timbers The Brandon Depot, Thetford Chase; The Ari Sawmill at Strachur; The Chipboard Factory at Annan; The preparation of wood wool at Mortimer Forest; What can there be in a ladder?; The use of wood in musical instruments; Charcoal burning in Sussex; Conifer barks as a source of tannins for the leather industry.

155 x 245mm | 260 pages | black and white
0
Free
Stock code:FCJO025
Journal
Forestry Commission
1924
The Forestry Commission Journal was introduced as a way to communicate information on a wide range of topics which could not be communicated through 'ordinary official channels', and was intended to be a means of exchanging the opinions and experiences of all members of the staff.

This third Journal includes information on: Objects and scope of the Forestry Commission’s experimental and research work; Unemployment grants; Nursery stock-taking; Forestry and the Imperial Economic Conference; British Empire Forestry Conference, Canada, 1923; Notes on North American forests; Forests of the Eastern United States; Seed supply from British Columbia; The work of the forester in charge of a forest; The green spruce aphid; Piece-work planting; The protection of young plantations on moorland areas; The size of plants in connection with weeding; The forester’s figures; Making the most of your seedlings; Blackgame; Notes and queries.

155 x 245mm | 62 pages | black and white
0
Free
Stock code:FCJO003
Booklet
T.G. Winter
1983
The main objective of this catalogue is to bring some uniformity into exchanges concerning forest entomology. It consists of three lists: a basic one and two supplementary. The basic list includes all species in Pests and diseases of forest plantation trees (F G Brown, 1968) occurring in Britain, to which have been added many others from both the literature and from records kept by the Entomology Branch of the Forestry Commission Research and Development Division. Besides insects the list also includes some mites and several nematodes. This list was originally designed for use within the F.C. Research Division as a source of valid insect names and authors together with a selected synonymy for all species with some claim to forest importance or significance. The species included show great variability in status, some being pests of economic importance, while others are of interest only. It should be noted that some synonyms may be invalid but are included because they have been used in forest literature. The two supplementary lists provide cross-references for common English names and host plants.
210 x 298mm | 64 pages | black and white
0-85538-173-6
£2.00
Stock code:FCBK053
Booklet
R.J.N. Busby, A.J. Grayson
1981
The purpose of this Booklet is to outline the basic concepts of investment appraisal as they apply to forestry, to provide tables of use in appraisal and to illustrate their application to a variety of cases in forestry.
152 x 210mm | 96 pages | black and white
0-11-710190-7
£3.75
Stock code:FCBK047
Booklet
C.A. Barrington
1968
This booklet sets out the natural setting of the woodlands of the Weald, a compact geographical region in the south-east of England. It discusses their history and economic value, and aims to show how they can be preserved both as scenery and as a source of useful timber.
216 x 279mm | 32 pages | black and white
0-11-710001-3
Free
Stock code:FCBK022
Information Note
2004
A4 leaflet | 6 pages | 2 colour
0855386312
Free
Stock code:FCIN060
Information Note
Tony Hutchings
2002
A4 leaflet | 2 colour
0855385626
Free
Stock code:FCIN044
Occasional Paper
A. J. Grayson
1987
The subject of evaluation is important to research managers generally and especially to those concerned with the formulation and direction of programmes. Evaluation is normally impracticable at the programme level; instead attention must be concentrated at the level of the project. The purposes served by such evaluation are three: to increase the awareness of research managers about the likely impacts of their choices, to provide a more critical basis for varying or stopping projects and to improve the choice of new projects and their design. The lack of appropriate data limits the methods available for evaluating forestry research to cost-benefit analysis. The components of total benefits distinguished are: expected contributions to outputs which can be priced, a score for expected benefits in the field of environmental outputs which cannot currently be priced, and a score for scientific value which is defined as the contribution to knowledge not captured in the other two components of total benefits. While these three elements can stand alone, their combination in a single measure is useful and methods are described for calculation of weights to make them commensurable. The results of assessing 45 current projects in the Research Division's programme are presented together with observations on the effect of differing weights on project ranking. Needs for further work identified are: more applications of available techniques for valuing environmental benefits in such fields as wildlife conservation, practice in peer review and the estimation of scientific merit, and experience in the assessment of the probability of success of achieving project objectives.
190 x 245mm | 32 pages | black and white
0-85538-217-1
Free
Stock code:FCOP015
Occasional Paper
M. Cannell, J. Cape
1991
This is one of a series of papers which form part of a study to consider the scale, location and nature of forestry expansion in Britain.
210 x 295mm | 33 pages | black and white
0-88666-567-3
Free
Stock code:FCOP035
Occasional Paper
J. Good, I. Newton, J. Miles, R. Marrs, J.N. Greatorex-Davies
1991
This is one of a series of papers which form part of a study to consider the scale, location and nature of forestry expansion in Britain.
210 x 295mm | 30 pages | black and white
0-8866-567-3
Free
Stock code:FCOP040
Occasional Paper
J. Benson, K. Willis
1991
This is one of a series of papers which form part of a study to consider the scale, location and nature of forestry expansion in Britain.
210 x 295mm | 30 pages | black and white
0-88666-567-3
Free
Stock code:FCOP039
Occasional Paper
A. Whiteman
1991
This is one of a series of papers which form part of a study to consider the scale, location and nature of forestry expansion in Britain.
210 x 295mm | 22 pages | black and white
0-88-666-567-3
Free
Stock code:FCOP037
Occasional Paper
I. McNicol, P. McGregor
1991
This is one of a series of papers which form part of a study to consider the scale, location and nature of forestry expansion in Britain.
210 x 295mm | 25 pages | black and white
0-88666-567-3
Free
Stock code:FCOP038
Occasional Paper
M. Arnold
1991
This is one of a series of papers which form part of a study to consider the scale, location and nature of forestry expansion in Britain.
210 x 295mm | 32 pages | black and white
0-88666-567-3
Free
Stock code:FCOP036
Occasional Paper
D. Campbell, R. Fairley
1991
This is one of a series of papers which form part of a study to consider the scale, location and nature of forestry expansion in Britain.
210 x 295mm | 39 pages | black and white
0-88666-567-3
Free
Stock code:FCOP041
Occasional Paper
J. McGilvray, R. Perman
1991
This is one of a series of papers which form part of a study to consider the scale, location and nature of forestry expansion in Britain.
210 x 295mm | 20 pages | black and white
0-88666-567-3
Free
Stock code:FCOP043
Occasional Paper
D. Harvey
1991
This is one of a series of papers which form part of a study to consider the scale, location and nature of forestry expansion in Britain.
210 x 295mm | 45 pages | black and white
0-88666-567-3
Free
Stock code:FCOP044
Occasional Paper
M. Hornung, J. Adamson
1991
This is one of a series of papers which form part of a study to consider the scale, location and nature of forestry expansion in Britain.
210 x 295mm | 43 pages | black and white
0-88666-567-3
Free
Stock code:FCOP042
Occasional Paper
J. Dewar
1991
This is one of a series of papers which form part of a study to consider the scale, location and nature of forestry expansion in Britain.
210 x 295mm | 24 pages | black and white
0-88666-567-3
Free
Stock code:FCOP046
Occasional Paper
J. Strak, C. Mackel
1991
This is one of a series of papers which form part of a study to consider the scale, location and nature of forestry expansion in Britain.
210 x 295mm | 22 pages | black and white
0-88666-567-3
Free
Stock code:FCOP045
Occasional Paper
D. Pearce
1991
This is one of a series of papers which form part of a study to consider the scale, location and nature of forestry expansion in Britain.
210 x 295mm | 50 pages | black and white
0-88666-567-3
Free
Stock code:FCOP047
Occasional Paper
J.A. Johnson, D.C. Nicholls
1991
This report presents the results of an enquiry into the influence of taxation and subsidies in forestry on the management of private woodlands in England and Wales. The aim of the study has been to clarify the critical elements in the management decisions of private woodland owners. The main feature distinguishing this study from others of its nature is that it is based on a direct comparison of the circumstances of woodland owners in 1964 with those in 1986.
200 x 245mm | 74 pages | black and white
0-85538-242-2
Free
Stock code:FCOP030
Occasional Paper
A. Whiteman
1991
This paper consists of two main parts. The larger part is concerned with new models of wood product demand that have been developed at the Forestry Commission. The rest of the paper then takes these models and, comparing them with future forecasts of UK roundwood production, examines the likely future raw material balance for wood and wood products in the UK.
190 x 245mm | 58 pages | black and white
0-85538-241-4
Free
Stock code:FCOP029
Occasional Paper
A. Whiteman, H. Insley, G. Watt
1991
This paper sets out the techniques used to survey and analyse prices, discusses the relevant factors in the price formation process, and presents price-size curves for a variety of crops.
185 x 245mm | 41 pages | black and white
0-85538-245-7
Free
Stock code:FCOP032
Occasional Paper
Professor I. Cunningham
1991
The purposes of this study are to draw together up-to-date assessments of the main factors bearing on decisions about the broad direction of forestry expansion; to use this to inform discussions of the location and type of forestry that would best meet the demands of society for wood products, jobs, recreation, amenity, wildlife conservation, carbon storage and the other services supplied by forests, at minimum cost in resources and without damage to other land use interests; and to see what conclusions follow for new planting over the next decade or so.
210 x 295mm | 27 pages | black and white
0-88666-567-3
Free
Stock code:FCOP033
Occasional Paper
Professor H. Miller
1991
This is one of a series of papers which form part of a study to consider the scale, location and nature of forestry expansion in Britain.
210 x 295mm | 27 pages | black and white
0-88666-567-3
Free
Stock code:FCOP034
Report on Forest Research
Forestry Commission
1970
Report on Forest Research for the year ended March 1970, which includes:

Work carried out by Forestry Commission research and development staff
Forest tree seed; production of planting stock; planting; choice of species; minor species survey; provenance; arboriculture; nutrition of forest crops; forest weed control; soil studies; drainage; cultivation; crop stability; regeneration; ecology; forest genetics; forest pathology; forest entomology; mammals and birds; statistics and computing; research workshop; photography; publications; research information; planning and economics; work study; timber utilisation.

Research undertaken for the Forestry Commission at universities and other institutions
- Nursery and forest extension experiments in tree nutrition
- Research on forest soils and tree nutrition
- Conifer seedling pathology
- Role of lophodermella species in premature death of pine needles in Scotland
- Virus diseases of forest trees
- Studies on insect viruses
- Research on the green spruce aphid, elatobium abietinum
- Studies on tit and pine looper moth populations at Culbin Forest
- Fish populations in forest streams
- Hydrological relations of forest and moorland vegetation
- The rate of spread of head fires in the New Forest, Hampshire

150 x 240mm | 257 pages | black and white
11-710109-5
Free
Stock code:FCRFR_1970
Report on Forest Research
Forestry Commission
1969
Report on Forest Research for the year ending March 1969 which includes:

Work carried out by Forestry Commission research and development staff
Forest tree seed; production of planting stock, site studies and the role of minor species; provenance; choice of species; arboriculture; planting; nutrition of forest - crops; forest weed control ; soil moisture, climate and tree growth; drainage; cultivation; regeneration; artificial; natural; stability of crops; ecology ; forest genetics; forest pathology; forest entomology; mammals and birds; statistics; research workshop; photography; publications; research information; planning and economics; work study; timber utilisation development.

Research undertaken for the Forestry Commission at universities and other institutions
- Nutrition experiments in forest nurseries
- Research on forest soils and tree nutrition
- Conifer seedling pathology
- Biology of the fungus crumenula sororia
- Virus diseases of forest trees
- Studies on insect viruses
- Research on the green spruce aphid, elatobium abietinum
- Studies on tit and pine looper moth populations at Culbin Forest
- Fish populations in forest streams
- Environmental studies
- Environmental factors and the growth of Sitka spruce
- Hydrological relations of forest and moorland vegetation
- Fires in forest and heathland fuels

150 x 240mm | 225 pages | black and white
11-710108-7
Free
Stock code:FCRFR_1969
Report on Forest Research
Forestry Commission
1961
The report of Forest Research for the year ending March 1959. The report includes:

Introduction
Summary of the year’s work

Part i Reports of work carried out by Forestry Commission research staff
-Forest tree seed investigations
-Nursery investigations
-Silvicultural investigations in the forest: (a) south and central England and Wales (b) Scotland and northern England
-Provenance studies
-Poplars and elms
-Forest ecology
-Forest soils
-Forest genetics
-Forest pathology
-Forest entomology
-Grey squirrel research
-Forest management
-Forest economics
-Design and analysis of experiments
-Machinery research
-Utilization development
-The library and photographic collection

Part ii Research undertaken for the Forestry Commission by workers attached to universities and other institutions
-Researches in mycorrhiza
-Studies in soil mycology IV
-Forest soils research in Scotland
-Soil faunal investigations
-The juvenility problem in woody plants
-Relationship between larch canker and trichoscyphella willkommii
-Shelterbelt research
-Soil faunal research
-Studies on the morphological variation of conifers
-Hydrological relations of forest stands
-Tracheid length in young conifers
-Protein-fixing constituents of plants: part ii
-Further studies on fomes annosus
-Utilisation of tan barks
-Nutrition of trees in forest nurseries

Part iii Reports on results of individual investigations
-A summary of ten years seed testing experience with western
-Hemlock, tsuga heterophylla
-The use of herbicides for controlling vegetation in forest fire breaks and uncropped land
-The drainage of a heavy clay site
-Experimental introductions of alternative species into pioneer crops on poor sites
-Pruning of conifers by disbudding
-The pine looper moth, bupalus piniarius, in rendlesham and sherwood forests— 1959
-Propagation of elms and poplars from summerwood cuttings
-Estimating yield of hardwood coppice for pulpwood growing
150 x 240mm | 230 pages | black and white
0
Free
Stock code:FCRFR_1960
Report on Forest Research
Forestry Commission
1960
The report of Forest Research for the year ending March 1959. The report includes:

Introduction
Summary of the year’s work

Part i - Reports of work carried out by Forestry Commission research staff
-Forest tree seed investigations
-Nursery investigations
-Silvicultural investigations in the forest: (a) south and central England and Wales (b) Scotland and -north England
-Provenance studies
-Poplars and elms
-Forest ecology
-Forest soils
-Forest genetics
-Forest pathology
-Forest entomology
-Grey squirrel control
-Forest management—introduction
-Working plans
-Forest economics
-Studies of growth and yield
-Census of woodlands
-Design and analysis of experiments
-Utilisation development
-Machinery research
-The library and photographic collection

Part ii Research undertaken for the Forestry commission by workers attached to universities and other institutions
-Researches in mycorrhiza and soil mycology
-Studies in soil mycology
-Soil fauna research
-Forest soils research in Scotland
-Substances in leaves affecting the decomposition of litter
-Studies on the physiology of flowering in forest trees
-The relationship between larch canker and the fungus trichoscyphella willkommii
-Further studies on the fungus fomes annosus
-Relation of fomes annosus incidence to soil and forest management in East Anglian pine plantations
-Shelterbelt research
-Researches on the tannin content of the stembark of Sitka spruce and Douglas fir

Part iii Results of individual investigations
-Effects of different forms and amounts of basic slag and phosphate on the growth of Japanese larch planted on blanket bog
-Summary of recent research into phosphate and potash manuring of conifers in nursery seedbeds in Scotland and northern England
-Summary of recent research into nitrogen manuring of conifers in nursery seedbeds in Scotland and northern England
-Experiments on the handling of poplar planting stock
-Resurvey of distribution of the bark beetle ips cembrae
-Studies of the indumentum of young shoots of Norway spruce

150 x 240mm | 204 pages | black and white
0
Free
Stock code:FCRFR_1959
View all publications


Adobe Reader download badge
Most publications can be downloaded and viewed on desktop computers using Adobe Reader. You can download Adobe Reader here.

Adobe Digital Editions download badge
Some publications are available in ePub format for use on mobile devices such as smart phones or tablets. To view ePub documents on desktop computers you can download Adobe Digital Editions here.

Whats of Interest

Please direct orders to:
Forestry Commission Publications (CST)
Chetham House
Bird Hall Lane
Cheadle Heath
Cheshire, SK3 0ZP

T: 0161 495 4845
F: 0161 495 4840
E: forestry@theapsgroup.com