Forestry Commission logo

Results

Your query returned 42 results.

UK Forestry Standard (UKFS)
Forestry Commission
2017
Practising sustainable forestry means managing our forests in a way that meets our needs at present but that does not compromise the ability of future generations to meet their needs. They will rightly expect that their forests and woodlands offer at least the same benefits and opportunities as we enjoy today. To sustain these expectations, the UK governments have set out their requirements for sustainable forest management in the UK Forestry Standard.

This epub summary of the UK Forestry Standard, designed for use on mobile devices such as iOS and Android smartphones and tablets, provides a checklist of the Requirements and Guidelines for General Forestry Practice and each of the sub-sections covering Biodiversity, Climate Change, Historic Environment, Landscape, People, Soil and Water.

An ePub version of the full UKFS is also available to download from this catalogue: UKFS (ePub)

ebook
978-0-85538-998-7
Free
UK Forestry Standard (UKFS)
Forestry Commission
2017
Practising sustainable forestry means managing our forests in a way that meets our needs at present but that does not compromise the ability of future generations to meet their needs. They will rightly expect that their forests and woodlands offer at least the same benefits and opportunities as we enjoy today. To sustain these expectations, the UK governments have set out their requirements for sustainable forest management in the UK Forestry Standard. Guidelines on how to meet the requirements are set out in sub-sections covering Biodiversity, Climate Change, Historic Environment, Landscape, People, Soil and Water.

This ePub has been designed for use on mobile devices such as iOS and Android smartphones and tablets. A printable pdf version is also available to download from this catalogue: UKFS (pdf)

eBook
978-0-085538-999-4
Free

Forest GALES: A wind risk decision support tool for forest management in Britain

Software
Bruce Nicoll, Sophie Hale, Barry Gardiner, Andrew Peace, Bill Rayner, Juan Suarez, Stephen Bathgate, Mark Brady.
2015
Wind damage is a major challenge for the management of forests in Britain, and it has economic, environmental and social consequences. In some areas the threat of wind damage restricts silvicultural options and leads to the use of shortened rotations, giving lower income from timber sales. In order to minimise risk, forest managers need information on the likely timing and magnitude of damage so that they are able to predict the level of risk and assess the implications of different management options. Forest GALES draws together more than 30 years of knowledge and research into a user-friendly decision support tool that will enable forest managers to estimate the probability of wind damage to conifer stands in Britain. The software calculates the wind speed that would be expected to damage a stand of trees and it provides windiness scores (DAMS) for the whole of Britain. It assesses the current level of risk of overturning and stem breakage, and the change in risk over the lifetime of the crop, in addition to assessing the effect on risk of thinning and the creation of brown edges. Forest GALES is able to calculate the risk to any number of stands simultaneously.

For more information about Forest GALES go to: www.forestry.gov.uk/forestgales

Software
978-0-85538-932-1
£50 + VAT
Stock code:FCSW001
Research Report (incl. Bulletins and Technical Papers)
Darren Moseley, Norman Dandy, David Edwards, Gregory Valatin
2014
Evidence indicates that woodland creation is generally a cost-effective method of climate change mitigation, when compared with a range of alternatives. However, engaging landowners and land managers in woodland creation schemes can sometimes prove difficult, and this affects prospects for meeting national woodland planting targets and associated climate change mitigation objectives. Although reluctance to plant woodland is often attributed to the low financial attractiveness of such schemes, wider factors – including long-held cultural views on changing land use and perceptions of the urgency of tackling climate change – can also be important. Insights from behavioural economics indicate that individuals are influenced by a number of cognitive factors in making decisions and that certain ‘nudges’ may help direct choices in a particular direction. Nudges are ways of influencing people’s choices without limiting the options, or appreciably altering their relative costs. There is a range of nudge type approaches that could be used to encourage woodland creation for climate change mitigation. These include addressing perceived barriers to woodland creation, encouraging private woodland creation by highlighting successes and by the public sector leading by example. Implementation of nudge type approaches should be tailored towards different types of landowners and land managers, who may vary in their attitudes, motivations and willingness to plant trees.

Related Research Note - Behavioural policy 'nudges' to encourage woodland creation for climate change mitigation (FCRN018)

A4 | 28 pages | colour | online only
978-0-85538-918-5
Free
Stock code:FCRP023
Practice Guide
Forestry Commission
2014
Wildfire events are predicted to increase in frequency in the UK due to increased land-use pressure and climate change. Wildfires can have a number of impacts on sustainable forest management and, in some extreme cases, may have devastating human and environmental consequences. Reducing the incidence and impact of wildfires in forests and woodlands through good management planning is important to protect the delivery of forest ecosystem goods and services. It can also help to prevent small wildfire incidents escalating into large-scale, out-of-control events. This Practice Guide supports the UK Forestry Standard by setting out good practice for building wildfire resilience into forest management planning. It describes the factors that can increase wildfire risk, sets out the planning measures that should be considered and outlines the forest management techniques that can be implemented to mitigate the risks to our forests and woodlands.

Wildfire risk assessment template for forests and woodlands

A4 | 52 pages | colour
978-0-85538-894-2
£11.00
Stock code:FCPG022
Research Report (incl. Bulletins and Technical Papers)
Vadims Sarajevs
2012
A substantial body of literature, including government policies, acknowledges the important role of greenspace in sustainable development and the creation of attractive and economically vibrant communities. Greenspace refers to the natural environmental components (green and blue spaces) that lie within and between a region’s cities, towns and villages. This Research Report provides a critical review focusing on the most recent evidence (years 2000-2011), of the net economic benefits, both direct and indirect, of initiatives to create or improve greenspace. Despite some conflicting evidence, the Report shows that there is a growing body of research that confirms the benefits. For example, a large-scale study undertaken for the UK National Ecosystem Assessment showed that a percentage point increase in greenspace land use share in a Census ward increases property prices by around 1%. Both expansions of broadleaved woodland and of coniferous woodland were found to have positive effects, with the impact of the former greater than the latter. The Report also highlights gaps in research providing robust estimates of net economic benefits.
A4 | 38 pages | colour | online only
978-0-85538-865-2
Free
Stock code:FCRP021
Research Report (incl. Bulletins and Technical Papers)
Gregory Valatin
2012
Comparing the cost-effectiveness of different climate change mitigation measures is essential in minimising the cost of meeting national greenhouse gas reduction targets. The costs of different measures and their potential to reduce emissions or sequester greenhouse gases can be depicted using a Marginal Abatement Cost Curve. Previous studies have shown that UK forestry measures are generally highly cost-effective by comparison with government estimates of the social value of carbon used in policy appraisal. However, estimates are sensitive to a range of factors including the species planted, forest management regime, environmental conditions, co-benefits and methodology adopted. This review provides a comparison of previous approaches and underlying assumptions, and summarises the current approach to cost-effectiveness analysis for policy appraisal and evaluation recommended in government guidance. It also provides recommendations for future studies.
A4 | 16 pages | colour | online only
978-0-85538-863-8
Free
Stock code:FCRP019
Research Report (incl. Bulletins and Technical Papers)
James Morison, Robert W Matthews
2012
Forests and woodlands represent a substantial stock of carbon that is contained in soil, trees and other vegetation. They are a key component of the global carbon cycle and their effective management, at both global and regional scales, is an important mechanism for reducing greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Understanding what determines the size of forest and woodland carbon stocks, and the processes and controls on the exchanges of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases, is critical in helping the forestry sector to contribute to reducing anthropogenic climate change. The objective of this review is to provide that understanding by summarising key information on carbon stocks in British forests, the fluxes of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases, how these are affected by changes as trees grow, and how they are affected by forest operations and other forest management decisions. This report will be of interest to forest managers, policymakers and researchers involved in estimating and understanding forest carbon and greenhouse balances, particularly in British conditions, how the balances can be affected by management, and what the limitations are to our knowledge.
A4 | 149 pages | colour | online only
978-0-85538-855-3
Free
Stock code:FCRP018
Practice Guide
Forestry Commission (Scotland)
2011
Since Medieval times, designed landscapes have evolved and at times changed dramatically in style and character. Throughout all periods and recognised styles however, trees have been an essential feature. In the 20th century social and economic changes proved challenging times for land management, with a combination of estate fragmentation, decline and changed land-use policies, specifically regarding new objectives for forest expansion and management. Now designed landscapes are appreciated for their contribution to local landscape character and the distinctiveness of many of Scotland’s landscapes.
Today the challenge is to protect, restore and rejuvenate the remaining legacy, whilst ensuring arboricultural and silvicultural practices can deal with the changes anticipated from climate change. This guidance is an essential contributor in helping ensure designed landscapes can meet those challenges.
A4 | 60 pages | colour
978-0-085538-846-1
££5.00
Stock code:FCPG102
Research Report (incl. Bulletins and Technical Papers)
Anna Lawrence, Sarah Gillett
2011
Adaptive forest management is a systematic process for continually improving forest management, in conditions of complexity and uncertainty, by learning from the outcomes of experiments and operational practice. Adaptive management has often been proposed as a suitable approach for dealing with uncertainty and complexity in natural systems, particularly in relation to climate change.

Some of the most significant challenges for implementing adaptive management are social and institutional. This study reviews published evidence, to assess international experience in adaptive forest management and its implications for woodland management in the UK. While much can be learnt from other countries, the pressures on land, high public expectations, fragmented habitats and ownership structures require a particularly collaborative approach in the UK. Characteristics of the UK context, including longstanding experience with partnership working, and a thriving culture of forestry knowledge networks, are promising aspects for a more adaptive approach to forestry.
A4 | 48 pages | colour | online only
978-0-85538-848-5
Free
Stock code:FCRP016
Research Report (incl. Bulletins and Technical Papers)
Gregory Valatin
2011
Additionality is a core aspect of quality assurance of greenhouse gas emissions reduction and sequestration activities, being used in a climate change context to mean net abatement over and above that which would have arisen anyway in the absence of a given activity or project. The underlying rationale of is to distinguish activities which further contribute to climate change mitigation from those which, although they may be associated with carbon savings, offer no benefits above those expected anyway. Different aspects of additionality are distinguished, and different approaches to testing for these and establishing associated baselines reviewed, in order to help inform development by the Forestry Commission of a Code of Conduct for forestry carbon projects in the UK.
A4 | 28 pages | colour | online only
978-0-85538-816-4
Free
Stock code:FCRP013
Research Report (incl. Bulletins and Technical Papers)
Gregory Valatin
2011
Carbon valuation, discounting and risk management are important in ensuring that effective incentives are put in place to tackle climate change, and in comparing the relative merits of climate mitigation activities over time. Approaches applied in different contexts, including in relation to permanence issues, are reviewed in order to help inform development by the Forestry Commission of a Code of Conduct for forestry carbon projects in the UK. An overview of current UK Government guidance on valuing carbon for policy appraisals is provided and the implications of adopting the UK Treasury’s declining discount rate protocol recommended in the Green Book discussed. It is noted that at present, there is little relationship between the value to society of reducing greenhouse gas emissions or sequestering carbon and the market price.
A4 | 40 pages | colour | online only
978-0-85538-815-7
Free
Stock code:FCRP012

Forestry and Climate Change pack

Miscellaneous
2010
This pack represents the key Forestry Commission messages on forestry and climate change. It explains in one document the role of trees, woods and forests in tackling and adapting to climate change. The pack, which contains twenty separate information sheets, has been developed for Forestry Commission staff, but can be used by anyone interested in communicating the importance of trees and climate change. A PDF of the pack and the individual sheets is available from our climate change webpages.
Pack
978-0-085538-800-3
Free
Stock code:FCMS022
Miscellaneous
Forestry Commission
2007
A4 | colour | 8 pages
0
Free
Research Note (incl. Information Notes)
Pat Snowdon, Amy Binner, Greg Smith, Matthew Agarwala, Brett Day, Ian Bateman, Amii Harwood
2017
This Research Note is based on a review by the University of Exeter that evaluated existing knowledge on valuing the social and environmental contributions of British trees and woodlands. It starts by bringing together different (but related) economic terms and concepts in a single framework for understanding how trees and woodlands contribute to economic well-being, then sets out some guiding principles that distinguish this area of study. Tables are used to categorise and to summarise the evidence base of the social and environmental contributions (including consideration of decision support tools and a separate assessment for urban trees). A further table summarises priorities for future research, both to fill gaps in understanding and to develop more advanced techniques and models. The Note concludes that much work has been done on valuing the flows of social and environmental goods and services from trees and woodlands in Britain. A substantial evidence base has developed, particularly in relation to open-access recreation and climate change mitigation. However, major gaps remain in other areas including the role of woodlands in flood alleviation, water quality, physical and mental health, and biodiversity. The Note highlights the need for sound underpinning science and the need for more integrated approaches to valuation, assessment and decision-making tools. Future research efforts should focus on areas where significant additions to existing evidence are realistic and where effort will provide the greatest benefits for policy and operational decision-making.

The full review undertaken by the University of Exeter is also available to download as a Research Report.

A4 | 10 pages | colour | online only
978-0-85538-956-7
Free
Stock code:FCRN027
Research Note (incl. Information Notes)
David Wainhouse, Daegan J.G. Inward
2016
Predicting future risks of damage by insect pests is an important aspect of forest management. Climate change has the potential to affect forest pests and their impact on trees through higher temperatures, altered precipitation patterns, and more frequent extreme weather events. Warmer temperatures are likely to have complex effects on insects, influencing, among other things, development rate and the seasonal timing of life-cycle events, while also affecting their host trees and natural enemies. It is not possible to predict the future impact of forest pests with any precision, but some generalisations can be made based on the ecological characteristics of different insect types. The damage caused by aphids and related insects is likely to increase as the climate warms. Higher temperatures will increase their reproductive rate, and drought stress of host trees may increase their susceptibility to aphid attack. The impact of bark beetles and related insects is also likely to increase, due to factors such as increased frequency of windblows, drought stress of host trees and, for some species, a shorter generation time. Effects upon defoliators are more difficult to predict, but the abundance and impact of some species is likely to be influenced by an increase in the number of generations per year and changes in their geographical distribution. Changes in forest management as a response to climate change, such as the introduction of new tree species, could additionally lead to the emergence of new pests.
A4 | 10 pages | colour | online only
978-0-85538_940-6
Free
Stock code:FCRN021
Research Note (incl. Information Notes)
Louise Sing, Duncan Ray, Kevin Watts
2015
The ecosystem services concept helps describe the benefits which humans receive from nature and natural processes in a way that can influence policy and management decision making. The ability of trees, woodlands and forests to provide a wide range of ecosystem services is very much dependent on where they are located and how they are managed. Characterising, assessing and valuing ecosystem services can support forest management in a number of ways. These include demonstrating the human and societal goods and services which trees, woodlands and forests provide; supporting the prioritisation of management activities by articulating forest management outcomes as trade-offs in ecosystem services; and considering whether the configuration and management of woodlands is sufficiently robust to meet potential changes in the future demand for ecosystem services, and is resilient to projected climate change. This Research Note provides an introduction to the ecosystem services framework by explaining the concepts of characterisation, assessment and valuation, and the links to sustainable forest management through the UK Forestry Standard. It presents the findings of a series of workshops, held by Forest Research during 2011, which identified the priority ecosystem services for policy and practice from trees, woodlands and forests as timber and fuel production, carbon sequestration, flood mitigation, water quality, health and recreation, and biodiversity.
A4 | Colour | 10 pages | online only
978-0-85538-929-1
Free
Stock code:FCRN020
Research Note (incl. Information Notes)
Darren Moseley, Gregory Valatin
2014
Evidence indicates that woodland creation is generally a cost-effective method of climate change mitigation, when compared with a range of alternatives. However, engaging landowners and land managers in woodland creation schemes can sometimes prove difficult, and this affects prospects for meeting national woodland planting targets and associated climate change mitigation objectives. Although reluctance to plant woodland is often attributed to the low financial attractiveness of such schemes, wider factors – including long-held cultural views on changing land use and perceptions of the urgency of tackling climate change – can also be important. Insights from behavioural economics indicate that individuals are influenced by a number of cognitive factors in making decisions and that certain ‘nudges’ may help direct choices in a particular direction. Nudges are ways of influencing people’s choices without limiting the options, or appreciably altering their relative costs. There is a range of nudge type approaches that could be used to encourage woodland creation for climate change mitigation. These include addressing perceived barriers to woodland creation, encouraging private woodland creation by highlighting successes and by the public sector leading by example. Implementation of nudge type approaches should be tailored towards different types of landowners and land managers, who may vary in their attitudes, motivations and willingness to plant trees.

Related Research Report - Behavioural policy 'nudges' to encourage woodland creation for climate change mitigation

A4 | 8 pages | colour | online only
978-0-85538-917-8
Free
Stock code:FCRN018
Practice Note
Jason Hubert, Joan Cottrell
2014
Conserving the genetic diversity within our tree species and the processes that determine it are important for sustainable forest management and increasing the resilience of Britain’s forests and woodlands. The genetic diversity within a tree species at any one time is the result of many dynamic processes, and it provides the source for future adapted trees and woodlands. Its importance is recognised in The UK Forestry Standard and forestry practitioners are encouraged to consider genetic diversity when managing forests and woodlands. One method of genetic conservation is to manage specific areas with the intention of allowing the full cycle of natural processes to occur. These areas are called gene conservation units. This Practice Note sets out what you need to do to establish a gene conservation unit and describes the recommended management approaches. Many woodlands may already be managed in a way that would make them suitable, but a more formal recognition of a network of gene conservation units allows for a more robust and quantifiable approach. The approach described here allows for a consistent method of selecting and describing units across the full range of a species and is compatible with the approach promoted across Europe.
A4 | 6 pages | colour
978-0-85538-897-3
Free
Stock code:FCPN021
Research Note (incl. Information Notes)
Kieron Doick
2013
A well-known effect of urbanisation is the warming of the local climate relative to surrounding rural areas, creating a phenomenon known as the ‘urban heat island’ (UHI). UHI intensity varies across a city and over time, but temperature differences may reach 9 °C in the UK. Factors that contribute to a UHI include the thermal properties, height and spacing of buildings, the production of waste heat, air pollution, and differences in land cover and albedo. The UHI effect is important as heat-related stress accounts for around 1100 premature deaths per year in the UK – increasing noticeably in exceptionally hot years. An estimated 8–11 extra deaths occur each day for each degree increase in air temperature during UK summer heatwaves. As the occurrence and intensity of extreme heat events is set to increase under the changing climate predicted for the UK, there are significant implications for the thermal comfort and health of city dwellers across many parts of the UK. UHI abatement is of significance to those engaged in the development and delivery of climate change adaptation plans, including urban planners, policy makers and health professionals. Urban planning, building design and landscaping can all provide strategies for mitigating the UHI. Vegetation has a key role to play in contributing to the overall temperature regulation of cities. Informed selection and strategic placement of trees and green infrastructure can reduce the UHI and cool the air by between 2 ºC and 8 ºC, reducing heat-related stress and premature human deaths during high-temperature events.
A4 | 10 pages | colour | online only
978-0-85538-878-2
Free
Stock code:FCRN012
Technical Note
Alan Dickerson, Bruce Nicoll, Mike Perks
2013
The management of forests and woodlands requires an effective road network to provide access for the machinery required to plant and harvest trees and extract timber and wood products. Roads are also used by visitors for access and activities such as cycling and mountain biking. Forest roads and bridges must be constructed so that they are fit for purpose and robust enough to cope with intensive forest operations. However, building and maintaining road networks uses energy and releases carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases – from the disturbance of soil for new roads and the quarrying of materials to the emissions from construction vehicles. It is important that these emissions are reduced wherever possible by following good practice in construction and by minimising soil disturbance, especially on sites with peaty soils. This Technical Note describes how the greenhouse gas release from forest civil engineering operations can be controlled and reduced, while still ensuring the development and maintenance of a robust forest road network. It is aimed at forest civil engineers, planners, managers and owners.
A4 | 12 pages | colour
978-0-85538-891-1
Free
Stock code:FCTN020
Research Note (incl. Information Notes)
Amy Eycott, Kevin Watts
2011
Maintaining species’ movement around landscapes is considered important if we are to conserve populations of many species and help them adapt to climate change. Particular features in the landscape have the potential to hinder or facilitate species movement. As each species interacts with the landscape differently, it can be hard to extract general patterns to include in planning and management guidance. This Research Note draws information together to look for such patterns. Firstly, we conducted a systematic review of the scientific literature. This relatively new technique in environmental sciences allowed a quantitative meta-analysis of specific types of evidence, as well as a traditional qualitative synthesis of the wider information available on UK species. Our review confirmed that, for those species for which there is evidence, most prefer to move through landscape features similar in structure to their breeding habitat. For example, woodland species tend to prefer to move through habitats which have some elements of vertical structure. However, we also established that species are idiosyncratic and their responses have various behavioural causes. For example, some landscape features that have a contrasting structure with a species’ breeding habitat may provide better shelter from predators, while others may act as good visual cues for navigation. Secondly, we summarise species-based landscape ecological studies carried out by Forest Research over the past few years.
A4 | 8 pages | colour | online only
978-0-85538-850-8
Free
Stock code:FCRN010
Research Note (incl. Information Notes)
Andy J Moffat, T R Nisbet
2011
The removal of tree stumps and coarse roots from felling sites as a source of woody biomass for bioenergy generation is well established in parts of Europe, and interest has been expressed in replicating this practice in some regions of the UK. Overseas research shows that stump harvesting can pose a risk to sustainable forest management, unless care is taken in site selection and operational practice. Poor practice can lead to detrimental effects on soil structure, increasing the risk of soil erosion, and depletes soil nutrient and carbon capital. Stump and root harvesting can also have impacts on woodland biodiversity, archaeological heritage and tree health. This Research Note offers a synthesis of available evidence on the effects of stump harvesting, drawn from largely overseas sources but critically considered for their applicability to British conditions. The overall environmental effects of stump harvesting on forest sites in the UK, and the relative magnitude of these effects compared with conventional restock site preparation, are under ongoing investigation. The results will be used to develop more definitive guidance. Preliminary guidance published by Forest Research sets out how the risks of potential damaging effects can be minimised, notably by careful assessment of site suitability and location of activities on low risk sites. It is recommended that this is used to guide the planning and location of stump and root harvesting operations in Britain.
A4 | 12 pages | colour
978-0-85538-847-8
Free
Stock code:FCRN009
Research Note (incl. Information Notes)
Vadims Sarajevs
2011
Street trees and urban woodlands provide a number of environmental and social benefits, including contributing to climate change adaptation and mitigation and providing urban green space. This Note presents the results of a review of three approaches to estimating the amenity value of street trees: CAVAT, Helliwell and i-Tree.
6 pages | colour | online only
978-0-85538-818-8
Free
Stock code:FCRN008
Research Note (incl. Information Notes)
Duncan Ray, Mark Broadmeadow, James Morison
2010

The changing climate presents a challenge for forest planning and forest management in England because the projected increases in temperature, changes in the seasonality of rainfall, and an increased frequency of extreme events add complexity to species selection and silvicultural practice. By actively adjusting forest management now, to anticipate future changes, we can hope to increase resilience by reducing exposure to risks in forestry and in the goods and services that woodlands provide for society. Tree growth will increase in some areas and decline in others, and the effects will vary with species. Some relatively less known species will become more suitable – including some from other continents and current climates more similar to those projected for England. New approaches to woodland management will be required to address the threats of drought and increased risk of damage from pests, diseases, wind and fire. There are many uncertainties associated with climate change, and the likely impact on trees, silviculture and forest operations. This uncertainty should not prevent adaptation but, instead, should direct woodland managers to implement measures that increase resilience whatever climate change brings, or that are likely to reap the greatest rewards in the future. A key concept in managing risk is diversification: from broadening the choice of genetic material and mixing tree species in different ways, to varying management systems and the timing of operations.

A4 leaflet | 16 pages | colour
978-0-85538-810-2
Free
Stock code:FCRN201
Research Note (incl. Information Notes)
Sarah Green, Duncan Ray
2009
This study identified 288 medium or high drought risk forest sites in eastern Scotland, 125 of which include Sitka spruce as a major component. Sitka spruce is intolerant of drought and is known to have previously experienced drought damage such as tree mortality and stem cracking in eastern Scotland. Cases of direct drought damage, together with infections by the root diseases, H. annosum and Armillaria spp., are likely to increase on Sitka spruce and other species in eastern Scotland as a result of climate change.
A4 | 8 pages | colour
978-0-85538-784-6
Free
Stock code:FCRN004
Research Note (incl. Information Notes)
Duncan Ray
2008
Climate change is now one of the greatest global challenges, and research is under way to establish the likely impacts on many aspects of the environment. Forestry Commission Wales has commissioned Forest Research to determine how forests and forestry in Wales will be affected by climate change. This Research Note provides an initial synopsis of the likely impacts, with preliminary recommendations to support the revision of the Wales Woodland Strategy. Climate change will create challenges and opportunities for the Welsh forest industry. Productivity will increase in some areas and a wider selection of species will become suitable, but effects will vary spatially and by species. New approaches to woodland management will be required to address potential threats of drought, increased pest and disease damage, and wind damage. There are many uncertainties associated with climate change, and the likely impact on trees, management systems and forest operations. A key concept in risk planning and management is diversification: from broadening the choice of genetic material, mixing tree species in stands, to varying management systems and the timing of operations. An aspiration of the current Wales Woodland Strategy is to increase the proportion of woodlands managed using low impact silvicultural systems. This conforms with the need to adapt management through species choice, promote management that has a lower environmental impact on forest sites, and improve the overall resilience of woodland ecosystems to climate change. This Research Note is also available in Welsh.
A4 leaflet | 8 pages | colour | online only
978-0-085538-764-8
Free
Stock code:FCRN301
Research Note (incl. Information Notes)
Anna Brown
2008
Red band needle blight is an economically important disease affecting a number of coniferous trees, in particular pines. The disease has a world-wide distribution but until recently it was mainly of concern in the southern hemisphere. In much of the world, including Britain, it is caused by the fungus Dothistroma septosporum. Red band needle blight causes premature needle defoliation which results in the loss of timber yield and, in severe cases, tree mortality. Since the late 1990s the incidence of the disease has increased dramatically in Britain, particularly on Corsican pine (Pinus nigra ssp. laricio), and due to the extent and severity of the disease on this species, there is now a five-year planting moratorium of it on the Forestry Commission estate. More recently there have been reports of the disease causing damage to lodgepole pine in Scotland and it has also been reported on Scots pine – although it rarely appears to be causing significant damage to this species. Reasons for the increase in disease incidence are unclear but could be due to increased rainfall in spring and summer coupled with a trend towards warmer springs, optimising conditions for spore dispersal and infection. Such conditions may become more prevalent in Britain over the next 20 years if current trends in climate change continue. In Britain disease management is currently focused on silvicultural measures to reduce inoculum loads and the use of alternative, less susceptible species in future rotations.
A4 leaflet | 8 pages | colour
978-0-085538-763-1
Free
Stock code:FCRN002
Research Note (incl. Information Notes)
Suzanne Benham
2008
The Environmental Change Network (ECN) was established in 1992 to provide a framework for monitoring the effects of a range of environmental drivers on freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems. The Alice Holt ECN site represents the Forestry Commission’s commitment to this long-term collaborative programme. This Research Note reviews data collected at the Alice Holt site over 14 years of operation from 1992–2006. Evidence of the impacts of climate change, pollution and their interaction with land management are explored. Monitoring of air quality has demonstrated a decline in the levels of some harmful pollutants and this is reflected in a reduction in soil acidity and resulting changes in plant communities. Meteorological data provide evidence that the climate is changing with significant trends in summer rainfall and winter cold days. Changes in moth populations have been linked to changes in climate while the decline in some butterfly species is identified as a possible consequence of reduction in open space. In contrast, this reduction has benefited several species of ground beetle, which prefer shady conditions. Bird surveys have enabled assessment and identification of possible causes of changes to the woodland bird populations, including those species subject to Biodiversity Action Plans. Similar trends are becoming apparent across the network, providing a robust early warning system for detecting changes in natural ecosystems as the effects of climate change set in.
A4 leaflet | 12 pages | full colour
978-0-085538-762-4
Free
Stock code:FCRN001
Research Note (incl. Information Notes)
Duncan Ray
2008

This Research Note provides an initial synopsis of the likely impacts, with preliminary recommendations to support development of a climate change action plan for forestry in Scotland.

A4 | 8 pages | colour | online only
978-0-085538-747-1
Free
Stock code:FCRN101
Research Note (incl. Information Notes)
Elena Vanguelova
2007
A4 | 2 colour | 12 pages
978-0-85538-737-2
Free
Stock code:FCIN088
Research Note (incl. Information Notes)
Jason Hubert, Joan Cottrell
2007
A4 | 12 pages | colour
978-0-85538-731-0
Free
Stock code:FCIN086
Research Note (incl. Information Notes)
Mark Broadmeadow
2005
A4 leaflet | full colour
0855386584
Free
Stock code:FCIN069
Research Note (incl. Information Notes)
T R Nisbet
2005
A4 leaflet
0855386541
Free
Stock code:FCIN065
Research Note (incl. Information Notes)
2003
A4 leaflet | full colour
0855385952
Free
Stock code:FCIN048
Practice Note
Alan Armstrong
2002
Please note that this revised edition replaces the previous version published in August 1999.
A4 leaflet | 2 colour
0855385677
Free
Stock code:FCPN007
Research Note (incl. Information Notes)
2000
A4 leaflet | colour
0855385219
Free
Stock code:FCIN031
Bulletin
Mark Broadmeadow (Ed.)
2002
It is now widely accepted that mankind’s activities are having a discernible effect on the global climate, and these changes will impact upon the functioning of many of the planet’s natural systems. Climate change will have a variety of direct and indirect effects on forests and, thus, will have implications for forest management. This Bulletin presents current thinking on how climate change predictions for the UK may affect tree growth, health and productivity, and also how they may impact upon the functioning of forest ecosystems. The Bulletin covers the potential impacts of climate change on UK forestry but not the role that forestry may play in mitigating climate change through carbon sequestration and fossil fuel substitution.
190 x 250mm | 216 pages | colour
0-85538-554-5
£25.00
Stock code:FCBU125
Field Book
J.L. Innes
1990
Forest condition is now assessed annually in most European countries. This Field Book provides details of assessment procedures used by the Forestry Commission in their main monitoring programme. Although this programme is restricted to Sitka spruce, Norway spruce, Scots pine, oak and beech, the techniques that are described are applicable with little or no modification to most other tree species. Crown density indices for the main conifers and broadleaves grown in Britain’s forests are illustrated in a sequence of colour photographs (five photographs for each species). While emphasis has been placed on the assessment of crown density, a variety of other indices are also used. These are described and an assessment system is provided for each parameter. The additional indices enable a full description to be made of the condition of a tree. This publication is no longer available in hard copy.
150 x 210mm | 96 pages | colour images
0-11-710283-0
£15.00
Stock code:FCFB012
Field Book
W.Towers, D.W. Futty
1989
The land capability classification for forestry is based on an assessment of the degree of limitation imposed by the physical factors of soil, topography and climate on the growth of trees and on silvicultural practices. The principal tree species considered are those broadleaves and conifers commonly grown in Britain, and the classification assumes a skilled management level that will include cultivation, drainage, fertiliser application and weed control where these are necessary. This publication is no longer available in hard copy.
149 x 209mm | 24 pages | black and white with colour section
0-85538-224-4
£2.50
Stock code:FCFB003
Bulletin
J.W.L. Zehetmayr
1954
This Bulletin summarises the results of numerous experiments carried out in various parts of the country, experiments which have dealt, mainly, with methods of establishing crops of trees on peat.
185 x 250mm | 134 pages | black and white
0
Free
Stock code:FCBU022
Corporate Plan
Forestry Commission
2008
This Corporate Plan sets out clearly how Forestry Commission England will help deliver the Government’s public service agreements on: mitigating dangerous climate change; securing a healthy natural environment; and improving quality of life.
A4 | 52 pages | colour | online only
0
Free
Stock code:FCCoP
View all publications


Adobe Reader download badge
Most publications can be downloaded and viewed on desktop computers using Adobe Reader. You can download Adobe Reader here.

Adobe Digital Editions download badge
Some publications are available in ePub format for use on mobile devices such as smart phones or tablets. To view ePub documents on desktop computers you can download Adobe Digital Editions here.

Whats of Interest

Please direct orders to:
Forestry Commission Publications (CST)
Chetham House
Bird Hall Lane
Cheadle Heath
Cheshire, SK3 0ZP

T: 0161 495 4845
F: 0161 495 4840
E: forestry@theapsgroup.com