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Miscellaneous
Forestry Commission
2018
The Forest Reproductive Material (Great Britain) Regulations provide a system of control for seed, cuttings and planting stock that is used for forestry purposes in Great Britain. This ensures that planting stock is traceable throughout the collection and production process to a registered source of Basic Material. In addition, it provides information on the genetic quality of the stock. The Regulations implement a European Directive controlling the marketing of Forest Reproductive Material within the EU and have been in force since 1 January 2003.
A4 booklet | 2 colour | 2nd edition
9780855387297
Free
Stock code:FCFC003
UK Forestry Standard (UKFS)
Forestry Commission
2017
Practising sustainable forestry means managing our forests in a way that meets our needs at present but that does not compromise the ability of future generations to meet their needs. They will rightly expect that their forests and woodlands offer at least the same benefits and opportunities as we enjoy today. To sustain these expectations, the UK governments have set out their requirements for sustainable forest management in the UK Forestry Standard.

This epub summary of the UK Forestry Standard, designed for use on mobile devices such as iOS and Android smartphones and tablets, provides a checklist of the Requirements and Guidelines for General Forestry Practice and each of the sub-sections covering Biodiversity, Climate Change, Historic Environment, Landscape, People, Soil and Water.

An ePub version of the full UKFS is also available to download from this catalogue: UKFS (ePub)

ebook
978-0-85538-998-7
Free
UK Forestry Standard (UKFS)
Forestry Commission
2017
Practising sustainable forestry means managing our forests in a way that meets our needs at present but that does not compromise the ability of future generations to meet their needs. They will rightly expect that their forests and woodlands offer at least the same benefits and opportunities as we enjoy today. To sustain these expectations, the UK governments have set out their requirements for sustainable forest management in the UK Forestry Standard. Guidelines on how to meet the requirements are set out in sub-sections covering Biodiversity, Climate Change, Historic Environment, Landscape, People, Soil and Water.

This ePub has been designed for use on mobile devices such as iOS and Android smartphones and tablets. A printable pdf version is also available to download from this catalogue: UKFS (pdf)

eBook
978-0-085538-999-4
Free
Research Report
Amy Binner, Greg Smith, Ian Bateman, Brett Day, Matthew Agarwala, Amii Harwood
2017
Woodlands and trees have a wide-ranging role in the economy but this is often under-valued in conventional economic indicators. For example, woodlands deliver social and environmental benefits – such as outdoor access, biodiversity and carbon sequestration – which are largely unpriced in economic transactions but which have important impacts on the economy and on society’s welfare. This review provides an overview of existing knowledge and evidence on the social and environmental outputs of forestry in Britain and identifies priorities for future research. It uses the concept of the ‘natural factory’ to explain how natural assets such as woodlands contribute to different economic production processes. It evaluates underpinning scientific research, economic valuation evidence, and provides a separate assessment for urban trees and woodlands. It also examines evidence needs relating to key developments in economic thinking and practice including natural capital accounting and a new generation of integrated decision support tools. Despite a substantial extant body of evidence, further research is needed to fill significant gaps in knowledge in order for the full economic contribution of woodlands to be understood.

A summary based on the full review is also available to download as a Research Note.

A4 | 120 pages | colour | online only
978-0-85538-955-0
Free
Stock code:FCRP027
Practice Guide
Forestry Commission
2015
The proportion of open space in many forests and woodlands is increasing as forest management plans are implemented and forests are restructured. Landowners and forest managers are increasingly being encouraged to manage this ground for biodiversity objectives but in some situations the management of open ground may be more complex and challenging than the management of the forests themselves. This Practice Guide provides information and guidance to forest managers on managing open ground in upland forests. The guidance covers planning open habitats in new forests, creating open habitats in existing forests and maintaining open habitat networks. The Guide sets out both general principles and guidance for specific habitats together with advice on monitoring.
A4 | colour | 44 pages
978-0-85538-913-0
£10.00
Stock code:FCPG024
Practice Guide
Ralph Harmer, Richard Thompson
2013
The restoration of plantations on ancient woodland sites (PAWS) to native woodland communities is a challenging objective that requires more management input than simply re-creating a stand of site native species. All sites differ, and optimising the choice of methods thorough site assessment is necessary before restoration starts. Where there is evidence of valuable remnants of the former ancient semi-natural woodland within the stand, management should secure their future, and promote their development and subsequent contribution to the future native woodland. This Guide provides a framework for selecting a method of stand management and advice on good practice that is appropriate for a particular site and related to the quality of the remnant features present.
A4 | 28 pages | colour
978-0-85538-885-1
£6.00
Stock code:FCPG021
Research Report
Mariella Marzano, Norman Dandy
2012
Forests are popular places for recreation, but some activities can have negative impacts on wildlife. Land managers have to balance delivery of the social and economic benefits derived from outdoor recreation with nature conservation objectives. This literature review provides an overview of potential disturbance issues and a guide to the evidence on impacts from walking, cycling, horse riding, off-road vehicle use, camping, and other recreational activities that take place in forests. Greatest attention has been directed towards walking, and impacts on soils, vegetation and birdlife. Much of the literature focuses on the physical characteristics of disturbance but there is little social scientific analysis of recreational users, for example on how their values and awareness relate to disturbance, or wider social factors that influence where, when and whether impacts occur. An holistic approach to understanding and managing the interaction of recreation and forest wildlife is needed, which links ecological studies with social data.
A4 | 40 pages | colour | online only
978-0-85538-864-5
Free
Stock code:FCRP020
Practice Guide
Jonathan W Humphrey, Sallie Bailey
2012
Deadwood is a vital component of a properly functioning forest ecosystem. It plays an important role in sustaining biodiversity and in delivering ecosystem services such as soil formation and nutrient cycling. In the UK up to a fifth of woodland species depend on dead or dying trees for all or part of their life cycle and many of these species are rare or threatened. This Practice Guide has been written for the owners and managers of forests and woodlands who want to increase the value of their woodlands for biodiversity. It provides advice and practical guidance on managing deadwood to support sustainable forest management and the UK Forestry Standard Guidelines on Forests and Biodiversity.
A4 | 24 pages | colour
978-0-85538-857-7
£6.00
Stock code:FCPG020
Practice Guide
Forestry Commission (Scotland)
2012
Diversity in forests is essential to conserve biodiversity and expand habitats, and to contribute towards enhancing landscape quality and recreation opportunities. In addition, introducing species and age diversity throughout a forest can increase their resilience to pests, diseases and fire, and extend economic opportunities.
This Practice Guide offers advice and ideas from which a forest manager may select options that meet their management objectives and are appropriate for their forest. The format of the guidance relates to the decisions which forest managers need to make when they are preparing fully integrated management proposals which will contribute to a Forest Plan.
A4 | 40 pages | colour
978-0-85538-859-1
£5.00
Stock code:FCPG103
Practice Guide
Forestry Commission (England)
2010
Managing ancient and native woodland in England has been produced by Forestry Commission England as an aid to forestry and woodland managers working with ancient and native woodland. It brings together current good management practice to ensure these important woodlands are sustained for the future. Our ancient and native woodlands are one of our oldest land uses and most diverse ecosystems. They have often taken centuries to develop, and for generations they have been an essential source of timber, fuel, coppice products, venison and other sustainable products. They are a vitally important component of the English landscape and every one has it’s own long and fascinating history.
A4 | 64 pages | colour | online only
978-0-085538-821-8
Free
Stock code:FCPG201
Practice Guide
Colin Edwards
2006
Invasive rhododendron presents a unique problem to the managers of any habitats it colonises. If left untreated, this aggressive weed can rapidly occupy the entire understorey of a range of woodland types, open spaces within woodlands and heathland habitats. This Practice Guide provides guidance on managing and controlling rhododendron in invaded habitats, including information on site survey, prioritising areas for treatment, selecting the most effective control techniques, and monitoring of treated areas.
A4 | 36 pages
0-85538-704-1
£6.50
Stock code:FCPG017
Miscellaneous
Forestry Commission
2005
This good practice guide aims to strike a balance between the needs of bats and the diverse objectives of woodland managers. It gives general principles and practical advice to assist in the management of your particular woodland, while recognising potentially conflicting management interests and objectives.
The guide examines the management of woodland in blocks or stands, ranging in size from an avenue of trees to large wooded landscapes. It is designed to help you sustain entire bat populations in woodland habitats, rather than focusing on each individual bat roost.
A4 landscape | 16 pages | colour
0-85538-667-3
Free
Stock code:FCFC212

A new dawn for native woodland restoration on the Forestry Commission Estate in Scotland

Miscellaneous
George F Peterken, Alan W Stevenson
2004
This publication reviews the progress made with Forest Enterprise Scotland's programme of native woodland maintenance, improvement, restoration and expansion, started in 1991, and considers where the process of native woodland restoration goes from here.
A4 | 60 pages | colour
0
Free
Stock code:FCMS109

Habitat networks for wildlife and people - the creation of sustainable forest habitats

Miscellaneous
Forestry Commission, Anon. Snh
2003
This publication discusses the enrichment of the natural heritage interest of Scotland's woods and forests through the creation of woodland networks - linking woodlands old and new to form a more continuous woodland cover.

The punblication proposes ways in which our woods and forests can be linked more intimately within the landscape; suggests that woodland should be viewed as an integral part of the wider scene rather than as individual stands of trees; emphasises the importance of placing woods and forests within the context of the many other forms of land use; and above all offers a new, holistic approach to appreciating and enhancing the value of all our woodlands.

A4 | 44 pages | colour
0-85538-299-6
Free
Stock code:FCMS107
Research Report
Jonathan W Humphrey
2003
A4 | 118 pages | black & white
0855386088
£10.00
Stock code:FCRP004
Research Report
S Bell
2003
Progress in research with special reference to Glen Affric and Sherwood Forest.
A4 | 162 pages | black & white + colour sections
0855385901
£19.00
Stock code:FCRP002
Practice Guide
Forestry Commission
2003
This Guide was first published in 1994. This edition is a reprint with a revised format and further reading section, otherwise the text has not been altered.
A4 | 28 pages | 2-colour
0855385847
£3.00
Stock code:FCPG005
Practice Guide
Forestry Commission
2003
This Guide was first published in 1994. This edition is a reprint with a revised format and further reading section, otherwise the text has not been altered.
A4 | 28 pages | 2-colour
0855385855
£3.00
Stock code:FCPG006
Practice Guide
Forestry Commission
2003
This Guide was first published in 1994. This edition is a reprint with a revised format and further reading section, otherwise the text has not been altered.
A4 | 28 pages | 2-colour
0855385871
£3.00
Stock code:FCPG008
Practice Guide
Forestry Commission
2003
This Guide was first published in 1994. This edition is a reprint with a revised format and further reading section, otherwise the text has not been altered.
A4 | 28 pages | 2-colour
0855385839
£3.00
Stock code:FCPG004
Practice Guide
Forestry Commission
2003
This Guide was first published in 1994. This edition is a reprint with a revised format and further reading section, otherwise the text has not been altered.
A4 | 28 pages | 2-colour
0855385820
£3.00
Stock code:FCPG003
Practice Guide
Forestry Commission
2003
This Guide was first published in 1994. This edition is a reprint with a revised format and further reading section, otherwise the text has not been altered.
A4 | 32 pages | 2-colour
0855385863
£3.00
Stock code:FCPG007
Practice Guide
Forestry Commission
2003
This Guide was first published in 1994. This edition is a reprint with a revised format and further reading section, otherwise the text has not been altered.
A4 | 28 pages | 2-colour
0855385804
£3.00
Stock code:FCPG001
Practice Guide
Forestry Commission
2003
This Guide was first published in 1994. This edition is a reprint with a revised format and further reading section, otherwise the text has not been altered.
A4 | 28 pages | 2-colour
0855385812
£3.00
Stock code:FCPG002
Research Report
Jonathan W Humphrey
2003
Proceedings of a conference held at Heriot Watt University, Edinburgh, 14-15 September 2000.
This publication comprises the proceedings of the conference. Its principle aim was to bring together researchers, practitioners and policymakers to allow a full and free exchange of views, information and ideas on the theme of native woodland restoration at the landscape scale. This includes creating new native woodland, restoring planted ancient woodland, and expanding existing native woodlands.
A4 | 158 pages | black & white + colour sections
0855385898
£17.50
Stock code:FCRP001
Practice Guide
Richard N Thompson
2003
The purpose of this Practice Guide is to give best practice advice to owners and managers on the restoration of native woodland on ancient woodland sites which have been planted with non-native species. The emphasis of the Guide is on the potential contribution of restoration to biodiversity and the practical considerations for successful development of native woodland.
A pull-out Site Assessment Guide (PDF) is included which has been designed to assist users in rating the restoration potential of any site and rank the relative priority of a number of sites.
A4 | 52 pages | full colour
0855385790
£9.00
Stock code:FCPG014
Practice Guide
Forestry Commission
1995
A5 | 36 pages | 2 colour
0855383313
Free
Stock code:FCPG009

Our pinewood heritage

Miscellaneous
1995
These conference proceedings comprise 28 papers in 5 sections: overview of the pinewoods in 1994, management issues, management practice, recent research and development, and the way ahead. Eight posters are also summarised. Expanding the area of native pinewoods in Scotland, conserving their ecology, increasing biodiversity, and recognising them as a community resource will sustain this woodland heritage for future generations.
Booklet | 266 pages | black and white
0855383259
£25.00
Stock code:FCMS102
Handbook
K. Broad
1989
A working knowledge of lichen ecology is important to most foresters. The study of lichens can reveal a good deal of important information about the age, health and management history of the woodlands where they are found - whether or not it is ‘ancient' woodland, for example, or the prevalence of atmospheric pollution in the area. This Handbook describes what lichens are, how they live, where they can be found and how they reproduce. It assesses the effects of various management practices on lichen abundance and species diversity, and it suggests methods by which they may be conserved. This Handbook is no longer available in hardcopy.
210 X 198mm | 44 pages | colour | online only
0-11-710267-9
£4.00
Stock code:FCHB004
Research Note
Alice Broome, Andrew Rattey, Chloe Bellamy
2018
To protect biodiversity in the face of environmental change, there is a need to designate and manage areas of habitat for rare and threatened species. However, to identify the right areas usually requires detailed data on species distributions. Reliable data for rare and protected species are sparse as many species are cryptic and under-recorded. The challenge is greater when there are multiple species for which conservation decisions need to be taken within a habitat type. This Research Note describes how a model was developed to support woodland managers and policy makers in considering the conservation needs of protected species. The ‘Niches for Species’ model integrates species habitat requirements for multiple species and provides mapped outputs of their niches, and hence their potential occurrence in native woodlands. The Note presents the theoretical background to the creation of the model, and explains how it predicts the potential occurrence of species by linking species habitat requirements to spatial environmental data. The construction of the model from a classification of ecological niches using expert knowledge is described along with details of its validation testing and analysis of its strengths and weaknesses. The Niches for Species model may have many applications in forestry planning and management. Examples explored in this Note include its use in strategic targeting of conservation effort, comparing the likely benefits to biodiversity of different woodland expansion scenarios, visualising the configuration of species-rich and species-poor woodland, and highlighting the likely presence of a particular woodland species at a site.
A4 | 12 pages | colour | online only
978-0-85538-981-9
Free
Stock code:FCRN035
Research Note
Joan Cottrell, Stuart A'Hara, Ken Adams
2018
Black poplar is Great Britain’s rarest native hardwood and there is considerable interest in conserving the genetic diversity present in the remaining population. However, multiplication by vegetative propagation has led to issues in identifying and selecting genetically diverse native planting material. The ability to use DNA markers to identify poplars at the level of the individual enables conservation efforts to be directed to deploy and maintain the current genetic diversity. This Research Note summarises the results from the DNA fingerprinting of 811 non-hybrid black poplars which identified a total of 87 clones. The results split the British black poplar clones into two groups, a small group which contains individuals with a large number of rare alleles (rare alleles are DNA variants occurring at a low frequency in a population) and a larger group containing less diversity and the more common alleles. In terms of their geographical distribution, some clones had a restricted distribution whereas others were widespread. The results highlight that the British native black poplar population has clearly been influenced by human intervention and, due to a number of historical factors it rarely acts as a naturally sexually regenerating species. Black poplar needs to regenerate sexually if it is to respond to environmental changes and management should aim to provide the conditions required for seed germination. DNA-based clonal identification can be utilised to ensure the current genetic diversity in the British population is protected into the future.
A4 | 16 pages | colour | online only
978-0-85538-980-2
Free
Stock code:FCRN034
Research Note
Chloe Bellamy, Nadia Barsoum, Joan Cottrell, Kevin Watts
2018
Woodland ecosystems are integral to our health, well-being, security and economy, but they face a number of pressures including climate change, land-use intensification, and emerging pests and diseases. This Research Note explores the links between biodiversity, measured at different levels of organisation (genes, species and communities), and the ability of woodland ecosystems to withstand and adapt to changing conditions and disturbance. Using examples drawn from the literature, the Note identifies and discusses a range of biophysical attributes that can positively influence these different elements of woodland biodiversity and therefore enhance ecosystem resilience. These characteristics are considered at a range of spatial scales, from the fine-scale attributes of individual trees and stands, through to features characterising entire woodlands and the environmental condition, composition and configuration of the landscape contexts that they fall within. In acknowledgement of the intrinsic value of biodiverse woodlands, and of the multiple ecosystem services they provide, the Note emphasises the importance of taking action to safeguard biodiversity and to improve woodland resilience at these multiple scales. Some of the implications for forestry management are discussed; actions that can be taken to enhance biodiversity are highlighted according to the spatial scale of implementation and the organisational level of biodiversity affected. The information in this Note has been compiled for use by woodland managers, other practitioners and policy makers, with a focus on British woodlands in all their forms, from production forests to native woodlands.
A4 | colour | 14 pages | online only
978-0-85538-974-1
Free
Stock code:FCRN033
Research Note
Nadia Barsoum, Stuart A’Hara, Joan Cottrell and Sarah Green
2018
Growing threats to biodiversity from pressure of land use, climate change, and invasive pests and diseases highlight the importance of obtaining accurate baseline measurements of current forest biodiversity, as well as improved monitoring to detect early signals of change. Developments in molecular techniques have advanced to the stage that there are now practical methods available that help reduce the costs and overcome the practical difficulties that restrict the breadth, speed and repeatability of species identification. This Research Note provides an overview of two molecular techniques, DNA barcoding and DNA metabarcoding, and the scope to use them in forest biodiversity surveys in support of a broad range of management and conservation objectives. DNA barcoding is widely used for the unambiguous identification of single species based on DNA extracted either directly from the organism itself, or from environmental DNA via hair, droppings and other cellular debris left in the environment it inhabits. DNA metabarcoding enables the identification of multiple species present in a single sample in a timely and cost-efficient manner. This creates opportunities to explore species interactions, to identify species within a community that may pose a biosecurity risk, and to investigate multiple species responses to environmental change arising naturally or through management interventions.
A4 | 14 Pages | colour | online only
978-0-85538-972-7
Free
Stock code:FCRN032
Research Note
Alice Broome, Ruth J. Mitchell
2017
Ash is a widespread species which makes a substantial contribution to many landscapes. Ash trees are affected by ash dieback, a disease caused by a fungus. It is clear from the European experience of the disease that a significant number of ash trees could be lost from woodlands in the UK over the course of perhaps the next 20–30 years. The ecological implications of the loss of ash trees encompass the biodiversity supported by the tree itself, as well as the ecosystem functions the species provides. This Research Note summarises recent research on the ecological value of ash, on tree and shrub species as alternatives to ash, and on the interpretation of this information for woodland management. The ground flora community associated with ash woodland is distinct and diverse and the species exerts a significant effect on habitat composition. Other tree and shrub species which occur in UK broadleaved woodlands, or are suitable for planting there, support many ash-associated species such as lichens, insects and fungi. However, the alternative species that support most ash-associated species do not replicate the ecosystem functions provided by ash. Various options are available for broadleaved woodland management, from relying on natural succession to planting specific species or mixtures of species to meet objectives of either ash-associated species conservation or ecosystem functioning and habitat maintenance. Encouraging the establishment of alternative tree and shrub species that are ecologically similar to ash may offer options to mitigate against the ecological implications of ash loss.
A4 | colour | 16 pages
978-0-085538-959-8
Free
Stock code:FCRN029
Research Note
Alice Broome, R.J. Fuller, P.E. Bellamy, M.P. Eichhorn, R.M.A. Gill, R. Harmer, G. Kerr, G.M. Siriwardena
2017
This research consisted of a literature review and field study which investigated woodland management for birds within lowland broadleaved woodlands in Britain. The research considered the effect of woodland management (silvicultural intervention and control of deer browsing) on vegetation structure, and the relationships between vegetation structure and woodland birds. Based on habitat–bird relationships, a classification of six woodland stand structures (A–F) related to their value to birds, and a framework to help understand and manage woodland development to deliver these structures were created. The field study, which was conducted in England and Wales, showed that woodlands are predominantly mature or late thicket stands, with low structural heterogeneity (type E – closed canopy, few strata), and silvicultural interventions are primarily mid to late rotational thinning. Such interventions lead to a uniform stand structure and reduced stem and understorey density. High deer browsing pressure also reduces understorey density. Study results showed these vegetation structures to be less favourable to the target bird species who were instead found to be associating with the structures predicted from the literature as being favourable. This suggests that vegetation structures for birds can be described, and if provided, bird populations could be enhanced. The frequently occurring woodland structure type E is of least value to woodland birds. Woodland managers are encouraged to move type E stands towards other types to help meet bird conservation objectives.
A4 | 12 pages | colour | online only
978-0-85538-957-4
Free
Stock code:FCRN028
Research Note
Pat Snowdon, Amy Binner, Greg Smith, Matthew Agarwala, Brett Day, Ian Bateman, Amii Harwood
2017
This Research Note is based on a review by the University of Exeter that evaluated existing knowledge on valuing the social and environmental contributions of British trees and woodlands. It starts by bringing together different (but related) economic terms and concepts in a single framework for understanding how trees and woodlands contribute to economic well-being, then sets out some guiding principles that distinguish this area of study. Tables are used to categorise and to summarise the evidence base of the social and environmental contributions (including consideration of decision support tools and a separate assessment for urban trees). A further table summarises priorities for future research, both to fill gaps in understanding and to develop more advanced techniques and models. The Note concludes that much work has been done on valuing the flows of social and environmental goods and services from trees and woodlands in Britain. A substantial evidence base has developed, particularly in relation to open-access recreation and climate change mitigation. However, major gaps remain in other areas including the role of woodlands in flood alleviation, water quality, physical and mental health, and biodiversity. The Note highlights the need for sound underpinning science and the need for more integrated approaches to valuation, assessment and decision-making tools. Future research efforts should focus on areas where significant additions to existing evidence are realistic and where effort will provide the greatest benefits for policy and operational decision-making.

The full review undertaken by the University of Exeter is also available to download as a Research Report.

A4 | 10 pages | colour | online only
978-0-85538-956-7
Free
Stock code:FCRN027
Research Note
John Calladine, Alice Broome, Robert J. Fuller
2016
Stand structure is an important determinant of habitat quality for forest biodiversity and is influenced by management. In conifer plantations, the varied structure created within a stand by continuous cover forestry (CCF) systems has been expected to be better for woodland birds than the range of discrete stand structures created through rotations of clearfelling and replanting (CFR). This study compared the number of breeding bird species (species richness) and their abundance within Sitka spruce stands which have been managed under CCF and by CFR. The study showed that species richness within CCF stands was higher than in CFR but young growth stages of CFR were important for some birds. Bird species richness is further influenced by the presence of a woody understorey or scrub vegetation structure. When stand types were ranked by species richness alone, CCF with a shrubby understorey was the most species rich, followed by CCF without a shrubby understorey, with young CFR and then older CFR being the least species rich. Modelling scenarios were used to test the effect of changing proportions of CCF and CFR in the landscape on the abundance of selected species. Designing a landscape which includes both CFR and CCF could prove to be a strategy for achieving optimal bird richness and abundance, as conditions for scrub-dependent species and the high structural diversity important for bird species associated with older stands are maintained.
A4 | 6 pages | colour | online only
978-0-85538-951-2
Free
Stock code:FCRN025
Research Note
Nadia Barsoum, Laura Henderson
2016
Planted forests of non-native conifers make up around 36% of Britain’s total wooded area. Increasing the area of native woodlands – including converting non-native conifer to native woodland where appropriate – is an aim of the UK Forestry Standard Guidelines on Biodiversity. It is unclear how much conversion is being implemented, what the motivations might be, or how it is achieved in practice. This study used literature review and questionnaire-based approaches to explore the benefits and drawbacks of conversion, and also to evaluate the attitudes towards, and experiences of, conversion. A majority of respondents are currently, or planning to be, engaged in converting non-native conifer forest management units to native woodland. A range of methods are practised, which aim towards either partial or complete conversion. The level of effort and cost required for conversion varies with local site conditions and/or the proximity of native woodland from which colonisation processes can occur. Some managers whose primary objective is timber production are concerned that conversion will result in a reduction in levels of productivity, which leads to a reluctance to pay for the process of conversion, especially where competition, herbivory and biosecurity threats to native tree species are a potential issue. In contrast, those managers whose primary objective is conservation appear prepared to invest time and resources converting their woodlands. However, many woodland managers are reluctant to undertake large-scale conversion without more guidance and evidence of the benefits.
A4 | 10 pages | colour | online only
978-0-85538-948-2
Free
Stock code:FCRN024
Research Note
Alice Broome
2016
Conifer seed provides an important food resource for many woodland mammals, birds and insects, including some of Britain’s rarest species. This Research Note brings together information from a number of sources on cone and seed production by the main conifers planted in Britain. This information can help managers assess the seed resources of their woodlands and manage the woods for the objective of seed production, whether for food or to encourage natural regeneration. Cone and seed crops fluctuate annually and the amount of seed available in good compared with bad seed years, as well as the frequency of good years, depends on a range of factors which include tree species, age of the crop and climatic conditions. Some species such as Scots pine produce moderate but consistent crops of seed every year, whereas others are much more variable. For example, in a good year Japanese larch can provide the greatest amount of seed and energy per area of woodland of any conifer species grown in Britain, whereas in a poor year production is almost negligible. The time of year when seed is released differs between conifer species. Woodland management can influence the continuity of seed supply as well as the quantities of cones and seed produced. Managing to provide a continuous and abundant seed resource involves consideration of woodland age structure and species composition as well as choice of appropriate interventions.
A4 | 12 pages | colour | online only
978-0-85538-947-5
Free
Stock code:FCRN023
Research Note
N. Barsoum, R. Gill, L. Henderson, A. Peace, C. Quine, V. Saraev, G. Valatin
2016
This Research Note presents the findings of a study which examined how biodiversity changes with stand age, with a view to incorporating it into optimal forest rotation length modelling. The study reviewed relevant literature and analysed Forestry Commission Biodiversity Assessment Project data. The review revealed no simple or universal response of biodiversity to stand age. However, there was more evidence of biodiversity increasing with stand age than falling (or not changing) and, with regard to habitat requirements for birds and mammals in British forests, there is evidence that after a brief initial increase, biodiversity declines until around 20 years and thereafter increases again. While only a limited number of economic models were found which linked biodiversity and rotation length, two distinct approaches to such work were identified: first, a direct approach which accounts for biodiversity values when estimating net present values and, second, an indirect approach which employs biodiversity management constraints in the modelling. The data analysis also revealed, in most cases, no evidence of significant changes in biodiversity with stand age. Upland Sitka spruce stands were an exception, where biodiversity levels were higher in young forests and again in more mature forests and at a minimum at around 40 years old. Overall, the study found that both the ecological evidence linking biodiversity and stand age and the economic modelling accounting for that linkage are limited. Therefore, a substantial challenge remains to incorporate biodiversity into rotation length models, and recommendations are made to address this.
A4 | colour | 10 pages | online only
978-0-85538-944-4
Free
Stock code:FCRN022
Research Note
Louise Sing, Duncan Ray, Kevin Watts
2015
The ecosystem services concept helps describe the benefits which humans receive from nature and natural processes in a way that can influence policy and management decision making. The ability of trees, woodlands and forests to provide a wide range of ecosystem services is very much dependent on where they are located and how they are managed. Characterising, assessing and valuing ecosystem services can support forest management in a number of ways. These include demonstrating the human and societal goods and services which trees, woodlands and forests provide; supporting the prioritisation of management activities by articulating forest management outcomes as trade-offs in ecosystem services; and considering whether the configuration and management of woodlands is sufficiently robust to meet potential changes in the future demand for ecosystem services, and is resilient to projected climate change. This Research Note provides an introduction to the ecosystem services framework by explaining the concepts of characterisation, assessment and valuation, and the links to sustainable forest management through the UK Forestry Standard. It presents the findings of a series of workshops, held by Forest Research during 2011, which identified the priority ecosystem services for policy and practice from trees, woodlands and forests as timber and fuel production, carbon sequestration, flood mitigation, water quality, health and recreation, and biodiversity.
A4 | Colour | 10 pages | online only
978-0-85538-929-1
Free
Stock code:FCRN020
Practice Note
Paul Haworth, Alan Fielding
2013
Golden eagles are primarily birds of open mountain country but they can use open woodland habitats and may benefit from prey species which use woodlands. In 2010 a suite of six new Special Protection Areas (SPAs) covering 360,000 ha were designated by the Scottish Government for the conservation of golden eagles, adding to the existing eight SPA sites in Scotland for this species. Around 28% of the UK golden eagle population lives in these protected areas. This Practice Note reviews the evidence for how golden eagles may be affected by woodland expansion in their breeding territories, and gives interim guidance on how to plan for woodland planting proposals within the protected areas to make them compatible with their golden eagle conservation objectives.
A4 | colour | 11 pages | online only
978-0-85538-889-8
Free
Stock code:FCPN103
Research Note
Claire Stevenson
2013
Understanding the role of the landscape matrix in species dispersal is important when targeting conservation and management strategies. This Research Note shows how least-cost modelling was used to assess invasive grey squirrel Sciurus carolinensis dispersal movements within the UK, with a focus on the county of Cumbria. Two major networks were identified separated by the Cumbrian Mountain range. This indicated that there may be multiple colonisation routes into the county. These findings were supported by evidence from DNA sequencing of seven grey squirrel populations. Least-cost model predictions were further validated through data from five global positioning system (GPS) collared grey squirrels. Buffered least-cost path analysis and the development of a least-cost corridor model enabled the most likely grey squirrel dispersal routes to be identified and validated using GPS data. To provide information on movements and land cover use, the individual movements of each squirrel were assessed. A case study was then used to highlight how the validated least-cost model can be applied to areas where red squirrels Sciurus vulgaris are still threatened by the invasive grey squirrel to provide information to target management and conservation actions. The findings should influence management strategies for grey squirrel control and conservation of the native red squirrels.
A4 | 8 pages | colour | online only
978-0-85538-879-9
Free
Stock code:FCRN014
Practice Note
Forestry Commission
2012
The great spruce bark beetle is found in forests throughout continental Europe. It damages spruce trees by tunnelling into the bark of the living trees to lay its eggs under the bark. The developing larvae feed on the inner woody layers, which weakens, and in some cases may kill, the tree. The beetle was first discovered in Britain in 1982 after it was accidentally introduced – most likely via a consignment of imported timber. It has become an established pest in the west of England and Wales but more recently it has expanded its range to southern Scotland. The good news for forest managers is that the beetle can be effectively managed by the controlled release of its natural predator Rhizophagus grandis. This Practice Note provides managers with a framework for assessing the risks to forests and advice on what to look out for if trees are affected. Guidance is given on the control techniques that have been developed to minimise the impact of the beetle and what action should be taken if the beetle is found.
A4 leaflet | colour | 8 pages
978-0-085538-872-0
Free
Stock code:FCPN017
Technical Note
Roger Trout, Kenny Kortland
2012
Collisions with fences can be a significant source of mortality for woodland birds such as capercaillie and black grouse. The construction of new fencing to protect woodland and trees in habitats supporting these two grouse species should be minimised, and the fences removed as soon as management objectives have been achieved. Fences that are necessary to protect young trees from high deer populations should be well marked to make them more visible to flying birds, thereby reducing the number of collisions. This Note describes options for marking both new and existing deer and stock fences, and provides information on materials and methods of attachment. The choice of marking technique will require consideration of the visibility of the marking material to capercaillie and black grouse, the ability of the material to cope with wind exposure, and the costs of the material and installation. A balance needs to be struck between the creation of a highly visible barrier, the practicability of sustaining the fence for its principal purpose, and the overall cost. The guidance in this Note applies to Capercaillie Core Areas in Scotland and all areas where black grouse are present.
A4 | 12 pages | colour
978-0-85538-837-7
Free
Stock code:FCTN019
Research Note
Ralph Harmer
2011
During the 20th century large areas of ancient semi-natural woodland were converted to conifer plantations, creating sites now termed PAWS (Plantations on Ancient Woodland Sites). Restoration of these sites to native woodland is a current objective of forestry policy throughout Great Britain. Natural regeneration is often regarded as the preferred method for restocking PAWS but it is a generally unpredictable process and some native species are very difficult to regenerate. A survey of western hemlock PAWS, carried out to identify which species were regenerating and how much of each was present, found a wide range of species either as seedlings or saplings, but at many sites the regeneration was predominantly birch. There were significant relationships between some site characteristics and the occurrence of regeneration, with the presence of nearby parents being especially important. Although there were often large numbers of seedlings present, most were small and patchily distributed, and the proportion of each site stocked with natural regeneration was low. A simple method for determining the proportion of a site stocked is described. While timber species such as oak and beech were regenerating, both seedling numbers and the areas of each site stocked were low. This indicates that natural regeneration may be an inadequate method of restocking and that planting may be required if an objective of management is to produce a good final crop of timber.
A4 | 8 pages | colour | online only
978-0-85538-851-5
Free
Stock code:FCRN011
Research Note
Amy Eycott, Kevin Watts
2011
Maintaining species’ movement around landscapes is considered important if we are to conserve populations of many species and help them adapt to climate change. Particular features in the landscape have the potential to hinder or facilitate species movement. As each species interacts with the landscape differently, it can be hard to extract general patterns to include in planning and management guidance. This Research Note draws information together to look for such patterns. Firstly, we conducted a systematic review of the scientific literature. This relatively new technique in environmental sciences allowed a quantitative meta-analysis of specific types of evidence, as well as a traditional qualitative synthesis of the wider information available on UK species. Our review confirmed that, for those species for which there is evidence, most prefer to move through landscape features similar in structure to their breeding habitat. For example, woodland species tend to prefer to move through habitats which have some elements of vertical structure. However, we also established that species are idiosyncratic and their responses have various behavioural causes. For example, some landscape features that have a contrasting structure with a species’ breeding habitat may provide better shelter from predators, while others may act as good visual cues for navigation. Secondly, we summarise species-based landscape ecological studies carried out by Forest Research over the past few years.
A4 | 8 pages | colour | online only
978-0-85538-850-8
Free
Stock code:FCRN010
Research Note
Andy J Moffat, T R Nisbet
2011
The removal of tree stumps and coarse roots from felling sites as a source of woody biomass for bioenergy generation is well established in parts of Europe, and interest has been expressed in replicating this practice in some regions of the UK. Overseas research shows that stump harvesting can pose a risk to sustainable forest management, unless care is taken in site selection and operational practice. Poor practice can lead to detrimental effects on soil structure, increasing the risk of soil erosion, and depletes soil nutrient and carbon capital. Stump and root harvesting can also have impacts on woodland biodiversity, archaeological heritage and tree health. This Research Note offers a synthesis of available evidence on the effects of stump harvesting, drawn from largely overseas sources but critically considered for their applicability to British conditions. The overall environmental effects of stump harvesting on forest sites in the UK, and the relative magnitude of these effects compared with conventional restock site preparation, are under ongoing investigation. The results will be used to develop more definitive guidance. Preliminary guidance published by Forest Research sets out how the risks of potential damaging effects can be minimised, notably by careful assessment of site suitability and location of activities on low risk sites. It is recommended that this is used to guide the planning and location of stump and root harvesting operations in Britain.
A4 | 12 pages | colour
978-0-85538-847-8
Free
Stock code:FCRN009
Practice Note
Forestry Commission (Scotland)
2011
White-tailed eagles (sea eagles) were re-introduced to Scotland from the 1970s and there are now over 50 breeding pairs. They frequently nest and roost in woodlands and tend to use habitual nest sites. The species has a high degree of legal protection, and woodland managers need to plan operations carefully to avoid disturbing the birds or damaging their nests. During the breeding season, between 1 February and 31 August, most forestry operations and activities should be avoided or severely restricted within 250 m of an active nest. Depending on circumstances, it may be possible to carry out a range of management and recreational activities between 250 m and 500 m from an active nest without risk of disturbance. At other times, activities up to and around nest sites may normally be carried out with little risk of disturbance, although habitually-used nests themselves are protected from damage and destruction, even when not in use. At any time, birds should be protected from repeated disturbance (harassment), for example at roost sites, as this is also an offence.
A4 leaflet | 10 pages | colour | online only
978-0-85538-826-3
Free
Stock code:FCPN101
Research Note
Russell Anderson
2010
The value of peat bogs as open habitats and stores of carbon may be lost if they are planted with trees. The number of bogs being restored is increasing but still modest in scale relative to the area of afforested peatland. Research is currently being carried out to determine the feasibility and methodology for restoring afforested bogs. Two experiments were set up to compare a range of methods for managing trees and drainage. In the blanket bog experiment, treatments that involved both felling trees and damming plough furrows were more successful than others in terms of raising the water table. Bog vegetation recovered rapidly in the felled treatments, particularly those with furrows dammed. In the lowland raised bog experiment, the water table rose dramatically in all treatments. Only during a prolonged dry summer was there a difference between treatments, the water table falling deeper in the whole-tree removal than in the fell-to-waste treatment, with conventional harvesting intermediate. Bog vegetation recovered best in the whole-tree removal treatments and least well in the fell-to-waste treatments. Felling is necessary for restoring afforested bogs, but removing lop and top is not. Damming plough furrows can help to restore blanket bog but damming main drains may suffice on lowland raised bogs. Damming furrows is ineffective if the peat is severely cracked. Tree seedlings often colonise bogs undergoing restoration – removing brash mats after harvesting and periodic maintenance should reduce this problem.
A4 leaflet | 8 pages | colour
978-0-85538-796-9
Free
Stock code:FCRN006
Practice Note
John Gurnell, Peter Lurz, Robbie McDonald, Harry W Pepper
2009
Practical surveying and monitoring techniques are essential for anyone involved in studying or managing squirrel populations in forests and woodland in Britain. Survey methods can be used to establish the presence of squirrels in a particular area and, if used systematically, can detect significant changes in the distribution or abundance of populations and species over time. Data gathered from surveys can be used to monitor how threatened populations of red squirrels are responding to conservation management or to environmental change, and they can also be used to assess the efficacy of grey squirrel control measures. This Practice Note describes how to plan a survey and gives guidance on which method(s) to use. Five indirect survey techniques are described, which are based on either sightings or signs of squirrels, and advice is given on their suitability for different types of habitat at different times of the year.
A4 leaflet | full colour | 12 pages
978-0-85538-792-1
Free
Stock code:FCPN011
Research Note
Duncan Ray
2008
Climate change is now one of the greatest global challenges, and research is under way to establish the likely impacts on many aspects of the environment. Forestry Commission Wales has commissioned Forest Research to determine how forests and forestry in Wales will be affected by climate change. This Research Note provides an initial synopsis of the likely impacts, with preliminary recommendations to support the revision of the Wales Woodland Strategy. Climate change will create challenges and opportunities for the Welsh forest industry. Productivity will increase in some areas and a wider selection of species will become suitable, but effects will vary spatially and by species. New approaches to woodland management will be required to address potential threats of drought, increased pest and disease damage, and wind damage. There are many uncertainties associated with climate change, and the likely impact on trees, management systems and forest operations. A key concept in risk planning and management is diversification: from broadening the choice of genetic material, mixing tree species in stands, to varying management systems and the timing of operations. An aspiration of the current Wales Woodland Strategy is to increase the proportion of woodlands managed using low impact silvicultural systems. This conforms with the need to adapt management through species choice, promote management that has a lower environmental impact on forest sites, and improve the overall resilience of woodland ecosystems to climate change. This Research Note is also available in Welsh.
A4 leaflet | 8 pages | colour | online only
978-0-085538-764-8
Free
Stock code:FCRN301
Research Note
Suzanne Benham
2008
The Environmental Change Network (ECN) was established in 1992 to provide a framework for monitoring the effects of a range of environmental drivers on freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems. The Alice Holt ECN site represents the Forestry Commission’s commitment to this long-term collaborative programme. This Research Note reviews data collected at the Alice Holt site over 14 years of operation from 1992–2006. Evidence of the impacts of climate change, pollution and their interaction with land management are explored. Monitoring of air quality has demonstrated a decline in the levels of some harmful pollutants and this is reflected in a reduction in soil acidity and resulting changes in plant communities. Meteorological data provide evidence that the climate is changing with significant trends in summer rainfall and winter cold days. Changes in moth populations have been linked to changes in climate while the decline in some butterfly species is identified as a possible consequence of reduction in open space. In contrast, this reduction has benefited several species of ground beetle, which prefer shady conditions. Bird surveys have enabled assessment and identification of possible causes of changes to the woodland bird populations, including those species subject to Biodiversity Action Plans. Similar trends are becoming apparent across the network, providing a robust early warning system for detecting changes in natural ecosystems as the effects of climate change set in.
A4 leaflet | 12 pages | full colour
978-0-085538-762-4
Free
Stock code:FCRN001
Practice Note
Brenda A Mayle
2007
This edition replaces the previous versions published in 2003 and 2004. It contains updates regarding legislation on the use of warfarin.
A4 leaflet | 16 pages | 4 colour | online only
978-0-85538-735-8
Free
Stock code:FCPN004
Technical Paper
Graham D Pyatt
2003
'Applying the Ecological Site Classification in the lowlands' is an illustrated case study of the New Forest Inclosures, which cover an area of 8500 hectares in southern Britain.
The Ecological Site Classification (ESC) model is a PC-based decision support system for forest managers. It is designed to match key site factors with the ecological requirements of different tree species and woodland communities (as defined in the National Vegetation Classification) anywhere in Britain. This publication is still available in hardcopy.
A4 | 28 pages | black & white + colour section
0855385685
£10.00
Stock code:FCTP033
Forestry Statistics
2002
This document contains a set of UK indicators of sustainable foresty. The indicators mostly provide information about the present state, and trends over time, of woodlands and their management, rather than measures of driving forces (pressures) or responses.
A4 | 104 pages | 2 colour | online only
0755910257
£10.00
Stock code:FCMS014
Technical Paper
Russell Anderson
2001
Afforestation affects bogs by triggering physical, chemical and biological changes within the environment. The primary purpose of bog restoration is to re-create wildlife habitat. This Technical Paper addresses the case for restoration, the basic principles that should be considered, the special case of cracked peat, and results from and practical experience gained in past restoration projects. Forestry Commission guidelines and the costs of restoration are indicated in appendices. This publication is still available in hardcopy.
A4 | 28 pages | black & white
0855384174
£7.50
Stock code:FCTP032
Technical Paper
Richard Ennos, Rick Worrell, Paul Arkle, Douglas Malcolm
2000
This Technical paper provides an account of genetic variation in forest tree species. It reviews our understanding of the genetic variation of native tree and shrub species in Britain. Highlights the issues that need to be addressed in developing a genetic conservation policy for British forestry. This publication is still available in hardcopy.
A4 | 38 pages | black & white
0855384123
£5.00
Stock code:FCTP031
UKFS Guideline Note
Gordon S Patterson
2000
A4 leaflet | full colour
0855385286
Free
Stock code:FCGN001
Technical Paper
Jonathan Humphrey, Kate Holl, Alice Broome
1998
This Technical Paper brings together a series of papers presented at the symposium 'Birch in spruce plantations: management for biodiversity' held at Scottish Natural Heritage's Battleby Conference Centre, Perth, in February 1997. The aim of this symposium was to present the findings from a series of collaborative research projects funded jointly by the Forestry Commission and Scottish Natural Heritage, looking into aspects of biodiversity associated with birch in spruce plantations. This publication is still available in hardcopy.
A4 | 70 pages | black & white
0855383569
£5.00
Stock code:FCTP026
Technical Paper
Jonathan Humphrey, Robin Gill, Jenny Claridge
1998
Nine papers presented at a workshop funded as part of an EU concerted action programme, aimed at reviewing information on the impact of grazing animals on forest ecosystems, identifying management problems, and determining priority areas for research. There is need for better integration of ecological and economic objectives in forest ecosystems; large herbivores can be used in management to facilitate this integration. This publication is still available in hardcopy.
A4 | 90 pages | black & white
0855383550
£5.00
Stock code:FCTP025
Practice Note
Gordon S Patterson
1998
A4 leaflet | full colour
0855383801
Free
Stock code:FCPN005
Technical Paper
Andrew H. Chadwick, Simon J. Hodge, Philip R. Ratcliffe
1997
The red fox is a generalist predator and scavenger, adapted to a range of habitats. An account of fox biology in relation to forestry is given, information on fox population trends is reviewed, and recommendations made with regard to strategies for management of the economic impact of foxes. This information is of value to forest managers and other land managers. This publication is still available in hardcopy.
A4 | 48 pages | black & white
085538350X
£5.00
Stock code:FCTP023
Technical Paper
Graham D Pyatt, Juan C. Suarez
1997
Describes a site classification that provides a sound ecological basis for the sustainable management of forests and resulting timber production, wildlife conservation and other benefits. Applicable to all kinds of woodlands, it incorporates the existing classification of soil types used for many years when selecting silvicultural options. Much of this publication is specific to Grampian Region (see Research Information Note 260 for a general outline of the classification). A publication on the subject, that will be applicable country-wide, is in preparation. This publication is still available in hardcopy.
A4 | 96 pages | black & white + colour section
085538347X
£5.00
Stock code:FCTP020
Technical Paper
Richard Worrell
1996
This Technical paper draws together information on the forests of the Scottish Highlands, many of which are regarded as being extreme oceanic variants of the boreal forest. Composition, structure, dynamics and history are described and the future of Scottish boreal forests is assessed. This publication is still available to order in hardcopy.
A4 | 42 pages | black & white
0-85538-334-8
£4.00
Stock code:FCTP014
Technical Paper
Philip Ratcliffe, Jenny Claridge
1996
This Technical Paper includes papers from the Thetfore symposium of 1991. The symposium was designed to gather together the results of a wide range of research which collectively have added greatly to our understanding of this pine forest ecosystem and influenced its management. The intended audience is woodland managers and ecologists and anyone with an interest in forest wildlife including the many visitors to the Forest Park. As well as providing a wealth of information about Thetford Forest, the abundance of comparative information included should also be of value to those interested in other woodland types. This publication is no longer available in hardcopy.
A4 | 178 pages | black & white | online only
0-85538-337-2
£5.00
Stock code:FCTP013
Technical Paper
J.E. Pratt
1996
The use of borates for the control of Fomes root and butt rot of conifers is reviewed in relation to the history of their use in wood preservatives, their efficacy as stump treatment materials, and their effect on the environment. Effectiveness, phytotoxicity, vertebrate toxicity, and environmental impact are all considered. Borates are effective in controlling infection of stumps by Heterobasidion annosum and pose little risk to the environment.
Forest edges are important for the stability, visual impact and biodiversity of forests. Improved design of edge plantings will enhance the benefits they provide. Wind tunnel experiments are described and results indicate the effect of different edge treatments on stability. Practical methods for creating edges that can improve forest stability and visual appeal are discussed.

This publication is still available to order in hardcopy.
A4 | 20 pages | black & white
0-85538-338-0
£4.00
Stock code:FCTP015
Technical Paper
Neil A. Mackenzie, Robin F. Callander
1995
Provides a summary account of the present extent, distribution, composition and condition of the native woodlands of the Highlands, which at over 210,000 ha is substantially greater than had previously been recognised. Half is of natural origin and half is of planted origin native woodland. Birch, Scots pine and oak are the commonest native species. There has been a recent increase in the natural regeneration and planting of native species. This publication is still available to order in hardcopy.
A4 | 28 pages | black & white
0-85538-333-X
£4.00
Stock code:FCTP012
Technical Paper
Richard Ferris-Kaan
1995
Managing Forests for Biodiversity was the title of a one-day symposium, organised by the British Ecological Society's Forest Ecology Group, and held at the Maybury Hotel, Edinburgh on 2 September 1992. This Technical Paper is a record of papers presented at the symposium plus additional information, preceded by a brief introductory review. The symposium was seen as a first step towards examining the very complex issues of biodiversity and forest management. This publication is still available to order in hardcopy.
A4 | 51 pages | colour cover
0-85538-324-0
£5.00
Stock code:FCTP008
Technical Paper
John Cayford
1993
The black grouse is a large, sexually dimorphic species found typically in habitats transitional between moorland and forest. Numbers of black grouse have recently declined throughout much of Europe. In Britain, the species is now largely confined to Scotland, the north of England and Wales. Continued loss and fragmentation of habitat represents the most serious threat to black grouse. Research suggests that black grouse would be favoured by sympathetic management practices which conserve existing habitat in forests and on adjacent moorland. Black grouse use forestry plantations prior to canopy closure, resulting in local, short-term increases in numbers and range. This Technical Paper gives recommendations for the management of black grouse in coniferous forests together with a description of the species, its current distribution, status and critical habitat requirements. This publication is still available to order in hardcopy.
A4 | 12 pages | colour cover
0
£3.00
Stock code:FCTP001
National Forest Inventory
Forestry Commission
2008
This publication covers the management and biodiversity data collected during the first National
Inventory of Woodland and Trees (NIWT1) that were not published with the main statistics on
woodland area. Many of these data were collected for the first time during this National Inventory
project.
A4 | 50 pages | colour
978-0-085538
Free
Stock code:FCIR002
Field Book
Brenda A. Mayle, Andrew J. Peace, Robin M.A. Gill
1999
Section 1 of this Field Guide considers the need to manage deer. Section 2 gives guidance on choosing a suitable census and sampling method. Section 3 presents 21 methods of population estimation, with a worked example provided in most cases. Methods of greatest use to practising deer managers (in terms of time and cost-effectiveness) are described in more detail. Section 4 reinforces the advantages of using census data in the development of effective deer management strategies. Section 5 comprises eleven appendices of useful supporting information. Deer populations in Britain are increasing; this book is a timely and practical guide for woodland managers and wildlife rangers. This publication is still available in hard copy.
135 x 235mm | 96 pages | colour images
0-85538-405-0
£14.00
Stock code:FCFB018
Bulletin
Steve J. Petty
1998
The main aim of this Bulletin is to inform forest managers about the ecology of birds of prey in these new conifer forests and to offer practical advice on management techniques that will improve their attractiveness for this important group of birds. While the information and advice given concentrates on and relates to man-made forests in the uplands, many of the principles discussed are also relevant to raptors in other upland habitats, and in the lowlands. Many aspects will be of interest to the more general reader. This publication is available in hardcopy.
190 x 250mm | 60 pages | colour photographs
0-11-710344-6
£14.99
Stock code:FCBU118
Bulletin
John Rodwell, Gordon Patterson
1994
This Bulletin combines expertise in woodland ecology and up-to-date silvicultural knowledge. It encourages the selection of the appropriate type of new native woodland for any particular site and gives guidance on the species composition, design and silvicultural methods which should be used in order to secure the development of the woodland ecosystem as a whole. The wide range of possible benefits from these new woods, including wood production, is recognised and the practical advice is tailored accordingly. This publication is still available in hardcopy.
190 x 250mm | 100 pages | colour photographs
0-11-710320-9
£9.95
Stock code:FCBU112
Bulletin
Robert Moss, Nicholas Picozzi
1994
The aim of this Bulletin is to summarise the best current information about the birds’ requirements and to provide guidelines for forest management which will benefit capercaillie. As far as possible, we base our recommendations on well-documented facts. Where hard data are not available, we make informed guesses based on anecdotal natural history and casual observations. Some of these guesses may be wrong; when we know more, we shall be able to improve upon them. This publication is still available in hardcopy.
190 x 250mm | 48 pages | colour photographs
0-11-710329-9
£6.00
Stock code:FCBU113
Bulletin
Gordon S. Patterson
1993
Broadleaved trees and shrubs are frequently scarce in upland forests in Britain, and national policy is to increase the proportion of broadleaves because of their value as wildlife habitat. Birches (Betula pubescens Ehrh. and Betula pendula Roth.) are between them adapted to succeed on a wide range of soils and are the commonest native trees of infertile regions. The value of birches for wildlife is high for most taxonomic groups. Birch woodland is capable of increasing the fertility of some mineral soils; it supports a large number of specialist and generalist phytophagous insects and a wide variety of woodland plants, birds and mammals. When mixed into conifer stands, birch is likely to increase their diversity considerably, especially for insects and birds.
190 x 250 mm | 48 pages | colour photographs
0-11-710316-0
£5.95
Stock code:FCBU109
Bulletin
P.A. Robertson
1992
This Bulletin summarises the findings of a 3-year study sponsored by the Forestry Commission and carried out by the Game Conservancy. The study undertook to quantify habitat requirements of pheasants, to assess the benefits or disadvantages to pheasants of different forms of woodland management and to investigate the effects of managing woods for pheasants on other wildlife. The Bulletin aims to present management guidelines that will benefit not just winter populations, but also increase natural breeding densities of wild pheasants.
190 x 250mm | 28 pages | black and white
0-11-710315-2
£3.75
Stock code:FCBU106
Bulletin
P.R. Ratcliffe, B.A. Mayle
1992
Roe deer are distributed widely in Great Britain and are managed for a number of reasons including the reduction of impact on trees and vegetation and their exploitation as a game species. Population data, especially on survivorship, on which to base management plans, are difficult to obtain and have previously been unavailable. This Bulletin gives a brief account of roe deer biology, insofar as this affects their management. It proposes a management strategy and methodology, based on deer numbers, population dynamics and habitat changes, and measurement of their impact on trees and other vegetation. Examples of population models are presented to illustrate the considerable regulatory effect of juvenile mortality on roe deer populations. The high levels of juvenile mortality appear to have been under-estimated previously, and consequently culling levels aimed at preventing population increases have been over-estimated. It appears that culls of the order of 15-25% will prevent many British roe deer populations increasing in size.
190 x 250mm | 44 pages | colour photographs
0-11-710310-1
£5.50
Stock code:FCBU105
Bulletin
R. Ferris-Kaan, G.S. Patterson
1992
Monitoring should be an integral part of conservation management in forests. It provides managers with information on the status and trend of species or habitats, and indicates whether specific goals have been achieved. Vegetation assessments can be used to monitor habitat quality as well as plant and species composition. Plants can be more easily monitored than many animals. This Bulletin provides advice on setting objectives and selecting appropriate parameters for measurement when monitoring vegetation. The need for sufficiently rigorous sampling is discussed, and measurement methods are outlined. Techniques for data interpretation are given and approaches to monitoring in different situations are described. This publication is still available in hardcopy.
190 x 250mm | 44 pages | black and white
0-11-710313-6
£3.50
Stock code:FCBU108
Bulletin
G. Shaw, A. Dowell
1990
Barn owl numbers have declined over much of the British Isles. However, in northern Britain afforestation has resulted in some local increases. Young plantations with rank grassy vegetation contain large numbers of field voles which are the main food of barn owls. Abandoned farm buildings provide nest sites for the owls, but these deteriorate and are unavailable for nesting by the time the forest is felled and foraging conditions are again suitable for bam owls. Even in afforested areas, the low density of buildings may limit the population of bam owls. This Bulletin presents a summary of the work in forests of south-west Scotland where surplus nestboxes were provided to see if the density of barn owls could be increased. During three years when field vole populations were increasing, the barn owl population in the nestboxes increased from 0 to 31 pairs, demonstrating that the bam owl population had previously been limited by a lack of nest sites. Barn owls were abundant on the farmland area adjacent to the forest, and chicks produced from these traditional sites colonised the forest sites. Recommendations are also given on how the results from this study may be applied in other forests.
190 x 250mm | 20 pages | colour figures and images
0-11-710291-1
£3.00
Stock code:FCBU090
Field Book
W.Towers, D.W. Futty
1989
The land capability classification for forestry is based on an assessment of the degree of limitation imposed by the physical factors of soil, topography and climate on the growth of trees and on silvicultural practices. The principal tree species considered are those broadleaves and conifers commonly grown in Britain, and the classification assumes a skilled management level that will include cultivation, drainage, fertiliser application and weed control where these are necessary. This publication is no longer available in hard copy.
149 x 209mm | 24 pages | black and white with colour section
0-85538-224-4
£2.50
Stock code:FCFB003
Bulletin
S.J. Petty
1989
The goshawk is a large bird of prey which was re-introduced into Britain in the 1960s and 1970s. Populations are now beginning to expand, particularly in areas with large forests, and where human persecution is not a limiting factor. It is predicted that goshawks will become relatively common in some parts of Britain by the early 1990s. They are generally considered a spectacular and welcome addition to forest wildlife. Goshawks are vulnerable to both accidental and wilful human disturbance when they are breeding. Recommendations are given for the management of nesting areas, together with a background of the history of goshawks in B ritain, their requirem ents, population density and the legislation which gives them full protection.
190 x 250mm | 24 pages | colour photographs
0-11-710269-5
£3.00
Stock code:FCBU081
Bulletin
J. Evans
1988
Natural regeneration can broadly be defined as raising a forest crop without resorting to planting, direct sowing or coppicing. It is the random nature of exactly where young trees spring up on a site and sometimes of the species which grow that marks out natural regeneration, not freedom from man’s influence. Indeed, many naturally regenerated stands are highly artificial, being the result of frequent intervention before, during and after the regeneration phase to achieve specific well-defined ends. The bulk of natural regeneration concerns raising high forest from seed directly from parent trees. Occasionally stems arising from sucker growth or recruited by singling and storing coppice shoots are a useful supplement to growth from seed or an appropriate system in their own right. They are mentioned briefly.
190 x 250mm | 50 pages | black and white
0-11-710263-6
£3.00
Stock code:FCBU078
Bulletin
P.M. Tabbush, D.R. Williamson
1987
Rhododendron ponticum is an evergreen shrub which forms dense thickets up to 5 metres in height. The large purple blooms appear in spring and are an attractive sight which has become commonplace especially on forested slopes in the west of the British Isles. Foresters are familiar with it as a most intractable weed, indeed control may be so costly that it cannot be justified purely in terms of benefits to wood production. Because of its dense shade, acid litter and toxic foliage, invasion is accompanied by severe impoverishment of the native flora and fauna.
190 x 250mm | 16 pages | black and white
0-11-710254-7
£2.00
Stock code:FCBU073
Bulletin
W.R. Day
1957
In the spring and summer of 1952 Mr W.R. Day, Lecturer in Forest Pathology at the Imperial Forestry Institute, Oxford, visited British Columbia. His object was to examine the forest relationships of the Sitka spruce in its natural homeland. The main purpose was to study Sitka spruce as an element in the mixed forests in which it naturally occurs, in relation to soil and topographical situation, and if possible in somewhat contrasting climatic regions.
185 x 250mm | 152 pages | black and white
0
Free
Stock code:FCBU028
Bulletin
J. M. B. Brown
1953
This bulletin presents the results of a comprehensive survey of British beechwoods carried out by Mr J.M.B. Brown, B.Sc., during the years 1948 to 1950. The importance of the beech in our woodlands is generally realised, and it is hoped that these studies will prove of value to all concerned with its silviculture.
185 x 250mm | 136 pages | black and white
0
Free
Stock code:FCBU020
Bulletin
Forestry Commission
1932
This bulletin contains an account of investigations on the roots of young trees carried out over a series of years for the Forestry Commission by Dr. E. V. Laing of the Department of Forestry, Aberdeen University. Special attention has been paid to the association of fungi (mycorrhiza) with roots and to the development and action of roots in peat soils. Both these questions are of great importance in afforestation operations in Great Britain.
155 x 250mm | 92 pages | black and white
0
Free
Stock code:FCBU013

Managing Native Broadleaved Woodland

Management handbook
Ralph Harmer, Gary Kerr, Richard Thompson
2010

Native woodlands occupy an important place in both our countryside and cultural heritage. They are managed to provide timber and other wood products but nowadays are often equally valued as habitats for wildlife and areas for recreation. The aim of this handbook is to provide advice that will help owners and managers understand and manage native broadleaved woodlands. A wide variety of subjects are covered, from identifying woodland communities and management planning, to silvicultural techniques, nature conservation and vegetation management – including the use of grazing animals. The background and principles of each topic are explained and case studies are used throughout. Interactions between site characteristics and historic management are also considered in relation to future management options. The handbook also highlights the questions that managers should ask, when considering management options for their woodlands, that take account of location, site characteristics and objectives.

Please note this publication is only available to buy from TSO
T: +44 (0)870 600 5522
W: www.tsoshop.co.uk

B5 book | 510 pages | colour
978-0-11-497344-5
£30
Stock code:FCBK003

The silviculture and management of coppice woodlands

Management handbook
Ralph Harmer
2003
Coppice woodlands form an important part of our cultural heritage and are often valuable areas for conservation and biodiversity. The 20th century saw a marked decline in coppice but in recent years long neglected woodlands have been brought back into active management. This renewed interest has been mainly for wildlife benefits, but some well-managed crops, especially in-cycle coppice, can have commercial value. Although coppicing is a simple process the results achieved may be disappointing. This may be due to a variety of reasons such as the size and age of stool, management of overstorey trees and the damaging effects of browsing. The aim of this book is to give information and advice on the management of trees, stools and woodlands as coppice, which is necessary if coppice woodlands are to continue to produce marketable crops and the variety of conservation, amenity and landscape objectives in which managers are interested.
Book | 88 pages | full colour
085538591X
£12.00
Stock code:FCBK001
Booklet
Herbert L. Edlin, Alan F Mitchell
1985
It’s impossible to imagine the British landscape without its broadleaved trees. Horse chestnut, holly, beech and birch - all have long been admired and valued not only because of their timber-producing capacity but also for their beauty.

The broadleaves of Britain form part of that vast natural forest of northern Europe which once stretched from the Atlantic to the Steppes of Russia. Formerly important as sources of building material and fuel, their main contribution nowadays is as shade- and shelter-providers although some - oak, ash, sycamore and lime - are still used by furniture-makers and willow remains the traditional material for cricket bats.

Herbert Edlin's introduction to broadleaves - now revised by a recently retired Forestry Commission expert - guides the reader towards a detailed knowledge of these trees. It covers the functions of leaf, flower and fruit: aids accurate identification of the different varieties by descriptions and drawings, and discusses the habitats where each species can be found.
203 x 190mm | 128 pages | colour photographs | 2nd edition
0-11-710039-0
Free
Stock code:FCBK020
Booklet
J. Evans
1983
This Booklet describes the species named in an Arboriculture Research Note on eucalypts in Britain by Evans (1980) plus a few others, and the principal species grown in Ireland referred to by Mooney (1960).The most successful species are from areas of temperate climate in Australia and are relatively frost tolerant. The characters used are those that are usually available on specimens in the field. A synopsis of the life cycle and morphological features of a eucalypt plant is provided to assist readers who are unfamiliar with the genus Eucalyptus.
190 x 235mm | 36 pages | black and white
0-11-710192-3
Free
Stock code:FCBK050
Booklet
J. Jobling, A.F. Mitchell
1974
The elms described in this Booklet are the species, varieties and hybrids commonly found in the countryside, in parks, and at the roadside in towns. They are:

English elm, Ulmus procera Salisbury
Wych elm, U. glabra Hudson
Smooth-leaved elm, U. carpinifolia Gleditsch var. carpinifolia
Cornish elm, U. carpinifolia var. cornubiensis (Weston) Rehder
Wheatley elm, U. carpinifolia var. sarniensis (Loudon) Rehder
Dutch elm, U. xhollandica Miller 'Hollandica'
Huntingdon elm, U. xhollandica Miller 'Vegeta'.

The primary features which can often be used to provide an absolute identification of a mature elm at any time of the year are the characteristic form of the crown and the colour and appearance of the bark. The shape of the leaf and the texture of the upper surface of the leaf are also important secondary features. This Booklet includes photographs, line drawings and descriptions to show these features and to help with the identification of elms in the field.
216 x 279mm | 24 pages | black and white + some colour photographs
0-11-710024-2
Free
Stock code:FCBK042
Booklet
Alan F. Mitchell, John Williams
1973
This Booklet provides basic information to help users identify common broadleaved and coniferous trees found in Britain. Thirty two species are included with drawings showing tree shapes, leaves and fruit/flowers.
102 x 216mm | 20 pages | black and white
0-11-710019-6
Free
Stock code:FCBK038
Booklet
R.C. Steele
1972
The aim of this Booklet is to show how woodlands managed mainly for wood production can be improved as habitats for wildlife. It is concerned with identifying those features of woodlands which promote wildlife conservation and suggesting how these features can be maintained or introduced by management. It suggests that wildlife conservation can and should be a management objective in all woodlands, whatever the other aims of management. The extent to which these recommendations are put into practice will depend on local circumstances but it is hoped that this Booklet will be of value to every forest manager and those interested in improving woodlands as wildlife habitats.
216 x 279mm | 68 pages | black and white
0-11-710015-3
Free
Stock code:FCBK029
Booklet
Alan F. Mitchell, Christine Darter
1972
This booklet contains a wealth of information on conifers from roughly 580 estates, gardens, parks and collections. Some outstanding trees previously unrecorded have been found and the best of these have been included. Specimens outside the general range of their species in this country are given precedence even if of no great size. Trees recorded in previous works have also been given some precedence and are included if they have made good, or occasionally, exceptionally little, growth. The coverage in this Booklet is intended to show the range of the species, and of the larger specimens; the largest, the finest and those of the most rapid growth. Special attention has been paid to the oldest or original trees surviving, as, in many cases, this is likely to be the last survey in which they will appear as living trees. The text describes 43 genera, 270 species and a further 217 varieties or cultivars. It mentions 526 arboreta and gardens that have been visited by the author, and twenty-four species are shown in full-page photographs.
216 x 279mm | 350 pages | black and white
0-11-710012-9
Free
Stock code:FCBK033
Booklet
Herbert L. Edlin, Chrsitine Darter
1968
All broadleaved trees belong to the great natural order of plants called the Dicotyledones, which are distinguished by having two seed-leaves or cotyledons in every seed. There are numerous families of these plants, many of which include both trees and smaller plants. Each family is defined, in a rather complicated way, on the basis of the structure of its flowers. A more practical approach is to learn the characters of each genus of trees, with the aid of a book such as this, which brings out their key features. Each plant family is made up of one or more genera, the members of which show a common pattern of bud, leaf, flower, and fruit. Each genus, in turn, consists of one or more species, distinguished by much smaller points of difference. As a handy working plan, the trees described in this booklet have been grouped alphabetically by their generic names, followed, again alphabetically, by the name of each species. The index on the inside back cover gives a quick reference from the English name of each tree.
216 x 279mm | 142 pages | black and white
0
Free
Stock code:FCBK020
Booklet
H. Watson
1947
In present-day afforestation much attention is devoted to the wild plants as indicating soil and climatic conditions, but within recent times the ordinary mosses have been proved to be just as important. In the following notes an effort will be made, first to give a life history of a moss, secondly to indicate, as far as present knowledge permits, the soil and climatic conditions under which particular mosses are found and thirdly to illustrate each of these by means of photographs. The mosses selected are those which a forester is likely to meet frequently in the course of his work and so to use in assessing locality conditions.
166 x 210mm | 48 pages | black and white
0
Free
Stock code:FCBK001
Information Note
Jonathan Hughes, Alice Broome
2007
A site recording form (PDF) is available to help with site surveying and monitoring.
A4 | 8 pages | colour
978-0-85538-744-0
Free
Stock code:FCIN090
Information Note
Amy Eycott
2007
A4 | 8 pages | colour
978-0-85538-738-9
Free
Stock code:FCIN089
Information Note
Elena Vanguelova
2007
A4 | 2 colour | 12 pages
978-0-85538-737-2
Free
Stock code:FCIN088
Information Note
Kevin Watts
2007
A4 | 8 pages | colour
978-0-85538-728-0
Free
Stock code:FCIN085
Information Note
Jenny Bryce
2005
A4 leaflet | full colour
0855386770
Free
Stock code:FCIN076
Information Note
Kevin Watts
2005
A4 leaflet | Full colour
0855386657
Free
Stock code:FCIN073
Information Note
M J Mcgrady, Steve J Petty
2005
A4 leaflet | full colour
0855386630
Free
Stock code:FCIN071
Information Note
Sophie Hale
2004
0855386479
Free
Stock code:FCIN063
Information Note
2003
A4 leafet | full colour
0855386037
Free
Stock code:FCIN050
Information Note
2003
A4 leaflet | full colour
0855385952
Free
Stock code:FCIN048
Information Note
2000
A4 leaflet | colour
0855385294
Free
Stock code:FCIN037
Information Note
R M A Gill
2000

This information Note provides recommendations for establishing effective deer management and tree protection measures

A4 leaflet | 2 colour
0855385278
Free
Stock code:FCIN036
Information Note
2000
A4 leaflet | 2 colour
0855385251
Free
Stock code:FCIN034
Information Note
Richard Ferris
2000
A4 leaflet | 2 colour
0855385227
Free
Stock code:FCIN032
Information Note
Ralph Harmer
2000

Information and advice is provided within this note on the effects of deer browsing within different broadleaved woodlands.

A4 leaflet | 2 colour
085538526X
Free
Stock code:FCIN035
Information Note
1999
A4 leaflet | 2 colour
0855383860
Free
Stock code:FCIN015
Information Note
1999
A4 leaflet | 2 colour
085538395X
Free
Stock code:FCIN023
Information Note
1999

This Note describes the influence of domestic stock on woodland habitats and their associated flora and fauna and provides guidance on the use of domestic stock to re-create, maintain and enhance the characteristics of semi-natural woodlands.

A4 leaflet | colour
0855385049
Free
Stock code:FCIN028
Information Note
1998
A4 leaflet | 2 colour
0855383836
Free
Stock code:FCIN012
Occasional Paper
S.J. Petty, M.I. Avery
1990
This review discusses the ecology and management of forest bird communities in relation to silvicultural practices in the British uplands. The review provides forest managers with information on how bird communities function in a dynamic forest environment and what foresters can do to achieve a richer, better balanced avifauna within their forest. It also provides the various conservation bodies with a background to current forest practices in the uplands and how these are likely to affect birds.
190 x 245mm | 116 pages | black and white
0-85538-237-6
Free
Stock code:FCOP026
Occasional Paper
A.J. Grayson (Ed.)
1982
The Forestry Commission and the Institute of Chartered Foresters organised a symposium under the title 'Broadleaves in Britain: Future Management and Research' at Loughborough, Leics., on 7-9 July 1982. This Occasional Paper contains supplementary papers and addresses which, in combination with the set of papers published previously (Broadleaves in Britain, edited by D.C. Malcolm, J. Evans, and P.N. Edwards, Forest Research (1982), 253pp), provide a complete set of the addresses and papers presented at the symposium. The opportunity has been taken to record summaries of the discussions at the session entitled 'A policy for broadleaves', and at the closing session.
155 x 235mm | 35 pages | black and white
0-85538-101-9
£1.50
Stock code:FCOP013
Occasional Paper
J. Good, I. Newton, J. Miles, R. Marrs, J.N. Greatorex-Davies
1991
This is one of a series of papers which form part of a study to consider the scale, location and nature of forestry expansion in Britain.
210 x 295mm | 30 pages | black and white
0-8866-567-3
Free
Stock code:FCOP040
Occasional Paper
R. Ferris-Khan (Ed.)
1991
This paper presents the proceedings of a symposium held at Alice Holt Lodge on 17 October 1989. It contains 12 papers and a discussion section.
190 x 245mm | 75 pages | black and white
0-85538-240-6
Free
Stock code:FCOP028
Occasional Paper
R. Worrell, A.J. Nixon
1991
This review collates information on the natural regeneration of oak (Quercus petraea and Quercus robur) in upland Britain and the factors which influence it.
185 x 245mm | 32 pages | black and white
0-85538-244-9
Free
Stock code:FCOP031
Technical Paper
Barry Gardiner, Giles Stacey
1996
Forest edges are important for the stability, visual impact and biodiversity of forests. Improved design of edge plantings will enhance the benefits they provide. Wind tunnel experiments are described and results indicate the effect of different edge treatments on stability. Practical methods for creating edges that can improve forest stability and visual appeal are discussed. This publication is no longer available in hardcopy.
A4 | 8 pages | black & white | online only
0-85538-339-9
£3.00
Stock code:FCTP016
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Please direct orders to:
Forestry Commission Publications (CST)
Chetham House
Bird Hall Lane
Cheadle Heath
Cheshire, SK3 0ZP

T: 0161 495 4845
F: 0161 495 4840
E: forestry@theapsgroup.com