The use of borates for the control of Fomes root and butt rot of conifers is reviewed in relation to the history of their use in wood preservatives, their efficacy as stump treatment materials, and their effect on the environment. Effectiveness, phytotoxicity, vertebrate toxicity, and environmental impact are all considered. Borates are effective in controlling infection of stumps by Heterobasidion annosum and pose little risk to the environment.
Forest edges are important for the stability, visual impact and biodiversity of forests. Improved design of edge plantings will enhance the benefits they provide. Wind tunnel experiments are described and results indicate the effect of different edge treatments on stability. Practical methods for creating edges that can improve forest stability and visual appeal are discussed.
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A4 | 20 pages | black & white