Glossary - N

A species which is thought to have reached Britain since the ice age without the aid of man.
Native species
Species that have arrived and inhabited an area naturally, without deliberate assistance by man. For trees and shrubs in the United Kingdom usually taken to mean those present after post-glacial recolonisation and before historic times. Some species are only native in particular regions – hence locally native.
Native woodland
Woodland composed wholly or mainly of species that colonised after the last Ice Age and before human influence on natural processes became significant.
Natural regeneration
Young seedlings that have arisen from seed falling from trees nearby, either as a direct response to specific forest management, or by natural seeding. Very often just referred to as 'regeneration' but technically this includes artificial regeneration as well, i.e. planting.
An introduced tree or plant that now regenerates naturally and is widespread.
New planting
Establishing woodland on ground that was not woodland in the recent past.
Non-market benefits or costs
Benefits or costs that cannot be bought or sold in conventional markets.
A tree species in a mixture that is planted to protect, or enhance the growth of, a more sensitive species intended to form the final crop, e.g. pine nursing oak or larch nursing beech. The nurse crop is usually removed during the early thinning stage.