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Strategies relevant to Forests and Climate Change.


  • The National Adaptation Programme Making the country resilient to a changing climate (2013). HM Government.
  • Environmental Reporting Guidelines: Including mandatory greenhouse gas emissions reporting guidance (2013) Defra, London.
  • UK Climate Change Risk Assessment: Government Report (2012). HM Government.
  • The Carbon Plan: Delivering our Low Carbon Future (2011). HM Government, London.
  • Climate change: the UK programme 2006. Department of Energy and Climate Change, London.
  • UK renewable energy strategy 2009. Department of Energy and Climate Change, London.

Forestry related

  • A new EU Forest Strategy: for forests and the forest-based sector (2013). European Commission, Brussels.
  • European Union forest action plan 2007-2011 (2006). European Union.
  • Climate change plan 2010. Defra, London.

Delivery mechanisms

  • EU Emissions Trading System The EU Emissions Trading System (ETS), which is currently in its second phase (2008–12, i.e. the same period as the Kyoto Protocol), requires Member States to create a National Allocation Plan within which emissions allowances are allocated to various sectors that emit greenhouse gases (e.g. large electricity producers, refineries, chemicals, food and drink). however, this national basis for allocation of emissions allowances will cease when Phase II ends on 31 December 2012. During Phase III (2013–21), emissions allowances for each Member State will be set by the Commission.

  • Adapting to Climate Change Programme The UK government’s Adapting to Climate Change Programme is a cross-government programme, co-ordinated by the Department for Environment, Food and rural Affairs (Defra). The Programme’s key objectives are to:
    • develop a more robust and comprehensive evidence base about the impacts and consequences of climate change;
    • raise awareness of the need to take action now and to help others to take action;
    • work across government at the national, regional and local level to make sure the need to adapt to climate change is embedded into government policies, programmes and systems.
  • UK low Carbon Transition Plan The UK low Carbon Transition Plan plots how the UK will meet the 34% cut in emissions on 1990 levels by 2020. The Plan shows how reductions in the power sector and heavy industry; transport; homes and communities; workplaces and jobs; and farming, land and waste sectors could enable carbon budgets to 2022 to be met.

  • UK renewables obligation The renewables obligation (ro) is the main mechanism for supporting the generation of renewable electricity. Since its introduction, the ro has been subject to various reforms and improvements. The most significant change to date was in April 2009, with the introduction of banding. This provides for different technologies to receive different levels of support, providing a greater incentive for less-developed technologies, including dedicated biomass burning, which have the potential to generate significant amounts of electricity.

  • Renewable Heat Incentive In 2010 heat generated from renewable energy met less than 2% of the UK’s total heat demand. The renewable Heat Incentive (rHI) is expected to come into force in 2011 and will assist towards the adoption of forms of heating such as biomass boilers and stoves which use forest products, together with air-source and ground-source heat pumps, sustainable biogas, biomethane and bioliquids, and solar thermal water heaters. This will help the UK to reach the 2020 renewable heat energy target of 12%.

  • Woodland Carbon Code The Woodland Carbon Code sets out the standards for voluntary carbon sequestration projects that incorporate core principles of good carbon management as part of modern sustainable forest management.
Last updated: 1st March 2017