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Import and export terms - glossary

Bark - the outer layer of the tree, excluding the bast or cambium layers and ingrown bark surrounding knots or bark pockets.

Bark-free - wood from which all bark, excluding the vascular cambium, in-grown bark around knots, and pockets between rings of annual growth, has been removed.

Christmas tree - any conifer tree or part thereof, with or without roots. It does not mean a tree sold with roots intended for planting outdoors.

Controlled (regulated) material - wood from tree species which are known to host harmful pests or diseases and have been made subject to special import/export requirements or, where the risk is too great and no effective treatment is known, prohibition.

Debarked - wood which has undergone a process by which some, but not necessarily all, of its bark has been removed.

Demarcated area - An area within which a pest or disease is present and is being officially controlled.

Directive - EU Council Directive 2000/29/EC.

Dunnage - loose wood used, or intended for use, to wedge or support cargo, but which does not necessarily remain associated with it.

European Union - the political and economic union of 28 Member States which are located primarily in Europe.

European Third Countries - include Albania, Belarus, Bosnia, Georgia, Iceland, FYR Macedonia, Moldova, Norway and Ukraine, but not Kazakhstan, Russia and Turkey.

Forestry material - forest tree plants other than those intended for planting, Christmas trees, wood, articles of wood and isolated bark, where derived from controlled material.

Great Britain - England, Scotland and Wales. Excludes Northern Ireland, the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands.

Grub hole - insect bore hole greater than 3mm across. Excludes holes made by marine borers such as the Teredo worm.

Heat treatment - the process whereby wood is heated in accordance with a time-temperature schedule that achieves a minimum temperature of 56 degrees Celsius for a minimum duration of 30 continuous minutes throughout the entire profile of the wood (including at its core).

Host material – plant material (can be plants or parts of plants, seeds, wood, wood products and bark) that a pest or disease can live on.

Ionising irradiation - Charged particles and electromagnetic waves which as a result of physical interaction create ions by either primary or secondary processes

Isolated bark – bark which is no longer attached to wood. Isolated bark may contain pieces of wood with bark.

ISPM15 (International Standards For Phytosanitary Measures No. 15) - an International Phytosanitary Measure developed by the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) which directly addresses the need to treat wood materials of a thickness greater than 6mm, used to ship products between countries. Its main purpose is to prevent the international transport and spread of diseases and insects that could negatively affect plants or ecosystems.

Kiln-drying - a process where the moisture content of the wood is reduced to below 20% expressed as a percentage of dry matter, at the time of treatment, achieved through an appropriate time/temperature schedule.

Local market - for controlled material covered by the Order, unless otherwise stated, means Great Britain.

Official statement - means, in relation to any testing or other procedure required to be carried out in respect of any controlled material, a statement made by or under the supervision of the Plant Protection Organisation in the country where the testing or procedure was carried out. In the case of material originating in a third country, the statement will be deemed to have been made by virtue of the presence of a phyto-sanitary certificate. In the case of material originating in the EU, the statement will be deemed to have been made by virtue of the presence of a plant passport issued by a registered producer following any appropriate inspection of the place of production and the immediate vicinity by the Plant Protection Organisation concerned.

Order - the Plant Health (Forestry) Order 2005. Statutory Instrument 2005 No. 2517 and any amendments thereto.

Phyto-sanitary Certificate - statement of plant health status made by means of a document set out in an internationally prescribed format, issued by a Plant Protection Organisation and specifically addressed to an official Plant Protection Organisation in the importing country. It confirms the identity of the material; confirms that it has been inspected and that it is considered to be free from quarantine pests; and that it otherwise meets the import regulations of the declared country of destination. It must be completed in English.

Plant passport - a label or document, or a combination thereof, containing required information, issued by any person listed on a register kept by the Forestry Commission or any other Plant Protection Organisation of the European Union. ‘Plant passports’, ‘replacement plant passports’ and ‘plant passported’ shall be construed accordingly.

Protected zone - a part of the EU where a particular harmful organism is officially known not to be present, or is present but is subject to official plant health control measures. As a result, a higher plant health status prevails requiring special measures to be taken before host material is consigned into, or moved through it.

Producer - a person who grows or makes the material in the course of a trade or business

Registered trader - a grower, owner, agent, sawmiller, timber merchant, timber user, or wood processor dealing with any material subject to plant health controls who has signed an undertaking to comply with certain obligations and to whom a registration number has been assigned by the Forestry Commission or another official Plant Protection Organisation.

Regulated (controlled) material - wood from tree species which are known to host harmful pests or diseases and have been made subject to special requirements or, where the risk is too great and no effective treatment is known, prohibition.

Round wood - Wood not sawn longitudinally, carrying its natural rounded surface, with or without bark.

Sap wood - newly formed outer wood lying between the cambium and the heartwood of a tree or woody plant.

Square sawn - sawn in such a way as to remove all of the outer natural round surface, thus rendering it wane free.

Third country - a country or territory which is not part of the European Union.

United Kingdom - Great Britain together with Northern Ireland, the Channel Islands and the Isle of Man.

Vector - a carrier which transfers a pest or disease from one host to another.

Wane-free - timber from which the entire original round surface has been removed by sawing or another equivalent process.

Wood packaging material - (WPM) packing cases, crates, boxes, cable drums, load boards, spacers, stickers, bearers and pallets etc. associated with all commodities.


Last updated: 20th December 2017