Forestry Statistics 2012

Glossary

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Ancient woodland 
Woodland which has been in continuous existence since 1600 (1750 in Scotland).
Bioenergy
Energy from any fuel that is derived from biomass.
Biomass
Material that is derived from living, or recently living, biological organisms.
Brash
Branch wood and leaf material that is generally too small in diameter to be considered part of the timber product from a harvesting site. 
Briquettes
Similar to wood pellets (see below) but larger, briquettes are made from compressed wood fibres and used for heating.
Broadleaves
Trees that do not have needles or cones, such as oak, birch and beech. A few, such as alder, have cone-like structures for their seeds which are not true cones.
Cement bonded particleboard
Sheet material manufactured under pressure, based on wood and other vegetable particles bound with hydraulic cement and possibly containing additives.
Chipboard
(see Particleboard).
Clearfell areas 
Sites where all trees have been felled at once. In non-clearfell areas, only some of the trees are felled at any one time.
Conifers
Trees with needles and cones, such as spruce, pine and larch.
Coppice
Trees that are cut near ground level (or sometimes higher, in which case they are called pollards), causing them to produce many small shoots. These shoots are harvested every few years at a relatively early age for products such as staves, fencing, fuel and charcoal. "Coppice with standards" includes scattered trees that are left to grow as normal ("standards").
Dead wood
Non-living woody biomass not contained in the litter, either standing or lying on the ground. For wood carbon reporting, the minimum was 15 cm diameter for standing and lying deadwood, and 7 cm dbh (diameter at breast height) for fallen trees.
Defra
Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs. 
Deliveries 
The quantities of UK-grown roundwood that is delivered to processors (mills) or for other uses (such as woodfuel and exports). Note that for sawmills and round fencing mills, the deliveries figure reported is actually the quantity of roundwood consumed by the mill, which may differ from the true deliveries figure if the levels of input stocks vary.
Direct production 
Timber that is sold after the trees have been felled by the woodland owner or their contractors.
Establishment
The first five to ten years or formative period that ends once young trees are of sufficient size that, given adequate protection, they are likely to survive at the required stocking.
EU
European Union. It currently comprises 27 member states: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden and the UK.
FAO
United Nations Food and Agriculture Organisation, responsible for the Forest Resources Assessment and for compiling international statistics on production and trade of wood products.
Fibreboard
Panel material with thickness equal to or greater than 1.5mm, manufactured from lignocellulosic fibres with application of heat and/or pressure. The bond is derived either from the felting of the fibres and their inherent adhesive properties or from a synthetic binder added to the fibres.
Forest
In the United Kingdom, there is no formal definition of "forest"; the term is often used for large woodland areas (especially conifers) or for old Royal hunting preserves such as the New Forest or the Forest of Dean.
Forest Service (FS)
An agency of the Department of Agriculture and Rural Development.
Forestry Commission (FC) 
The government department responsible for forestry matters in Great Britain. The responsibility for forestry is devolved to ministers in the Scottish Government and the Welsh Government, but some executive functions are exercised throughout Great Britain by the FC.
FSC
Forest Stewardship Council.
Great Britain (GB)
England, Wales and Scotland.
Green tonne
The weight measurement of timber freshly felled before any natural or artificial drying has occurred.
GDP deflator 
Gross Domestic Product at market prices deflator. Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is a measure of the total domestic economic activity. Growth in GDP reflects both growth in the economy and price changes (inflation). Applying a GDP deflator to time series of prices or price indices removes the effects of inflation to enable a comparison of changes in price that are not caused by inflation.
Gross Value Added (GVA)
A measure of the contribution to the economy of each individual producer, industry or sector in the United Kingdom.
Hectare (ha)
unit of area defined as 10,000 square metres (100 m by 100 m), approximately equivalent to 2.47 acres.
Hardwood
The wood of broadleaved trees, such as oak, birch and beech; a term sometimes used for the broadleaved trees themselves.
High forest
Trees capable of growing to be suitable for timber production (compare with coppice).
Increment 
The growth rate of standing trees.
Kyoto Protocol 
A protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) that set binding obligations on the industrialised countries to reduce their emissions of greenhouse gases.
Litter
Non-living biomass with a diameter less than the minimum for dead wood, lying dead in various states of decomposition above the soil.
Medium-density fibreboard (MDF) 
Wood fibreboard made by a dry process in which the primary bond is derived from a bonding agent, and having a density usually exceeding 600 kg per cubic metre.
Native species
Species that have arrived and inhabited an area naturally, without deliberate assistance by man. For trees and shrubs in the United Kingdom usually taken to mean those present after post-glacial recolonisation and before historic times. Some species are only native in particular regions - hence locally native.
Natural colonisation
The creation of new woodland by natural means, i.e. without sowing or planting.
Natural regeneration
The regeneration of existing woodland by natural means, i.e. without sowing or planting.
New planting
Establishing woodland on ground that was not woodland in the recent past.
Nominal terms 
Refers to prices at the time of sale. See also "real terms".
NI
Northern Ireland.
NFI
National Forest Inventory. 
NIWT
1995-99 National Inventory of Woodland and Trees.
Oven dry tonnes (ODT)
Measurement of quantity without moisture (i.e. 0% moisture content).
ONS
Office for National Statistics.
Oriented strand board (OSB)
Multi-layered board made from strands of wood of a predetermined shape and thickness together with a binder. The strands in the external layers are aligned and parallel to the board length or width.
Overbark
The volume of wood including the bark. Can be either standing volume or felled volume.
Particleboard
Panel material manufactured under pressure and heat from particles of wood (wood and chipboard flakes, chips, shavings, sawdust), with the addition of an adhesive.
PAYE
Pay-as-you-earn tax.
Photosynthesis
Chemical process carried out by green plants in the presence of light, which combines carbon dioxide from the atmosphere with hydrogen from water in the soil to form sugars as food for the growing plant. Oxygen is a by-product of the reaction.
Plywood
Wood-based panel consisting of an assembly of layers bonded together with the direction of the grain in adjacent layers, usually at right angles (not currently made in the UK).
Price index 
A measure of the proportionate, or percentage, changes in a set of prices over time. Commonly used price indices include the Laspeyres index, Paasche index and Fisher index.
Pulp
A fibrous material produced by mechanically or chemically reducing wood into their component parts from which pulp, paper and paperboard sheets are formed after proper slushing and treatment or used for dissolving purposes (dissolving pulp or chemical cellulose) to make rayon, plastics, and other synthetic products. Sometimes called wood pulp.
Real terms 
Refers to prices at a common date. Prices in real terms are derived by applying a deflator to remove the effects of general inflation to enable a comparison of changes over time that have not resulted from inflation. See also "nominal terms".
Recovered wood 
Either industrial process by-products (e.g. offcuts or fines from a board manufacturing mill, furniture factory, joinery or construction) or from post-consumer waste wood (e.g. pallets, construction waste) after the stage of recovery or reclamation for purposes of recycling.
Restocking
The replanting of an area after trees are removed.
Roadside sales 
Sales of timber after harvesting. The owner is responsible for getting the trees felled and extracting them to the side of the road, ready to take away.
Roundwood
Trunk or branch wood, generally with a top diameter of 7 cm or more. Can be in the form of logs (14 cm top diameter or more) or small roundwood (7 to 14 cm).
Sawlogs
Material of at least 14 cm top diameter that is destined to be sawn into planks or boards.
Sawmill products
Materials including wood chips, sawdust and bark which arise during the conversion of logs to sawn timber. Most are used as inputs to other wood processing industries, sold for bioenergy or sold for other uses. Formerly called sawmill residues or co-products.
Sawnwood
Sawn timber - timber that has been cut into planks or boards from logs.
Scrub
Area of poorly formed trees or bushes unsuitable for conversion to timber.
Scottish Government (SG) 
The executive branch of the devolved government of Scotland. Previously known as the Scottish Executive.
Semi-natural woodland
Woodland with natural characteristics (predominantly native species of trees, ground plants and animals) where wood production is not a primary objective; this term is used rather than natural because the woodland may have originally been planted or have been managed for wood production in the past.
Silviculture
The care and cultivation of forest trees.
Softwood
The wood of coniferous trees, such as spruce, pine and larch; a term sometimes used for the coniferous trees themselves.
Short rotation coppice (SRC)
An energy crop, usually consisting of densely planted, high yielding varieties of willow or poplar.
Standing sales 
Sales of timber while the trees are still standing. The buyer is responsible for getting the trees felled and removed from the site.
Standing volume
Measurement of quantity before trees are felled. Usually expressed as cubic metres overbark standing.
Stemwood 
Wood from the stem and main branches of a tree, excluding the stump and small branches.
Stump 
The above-ground base part of a tree that would usually remain after felling.
Thinning
A proportion of stems removed in order to give the best stems space and light to grow into a more valuable crop. This is usually carried out some time after canopy closure and may be repeated at intervals. It is a necessary operation in the production of quality timber. A temporary reduction in standing volume will result.
United Kingdom (UK)
Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
UKFPA
United Kingdom Forest Products Association.
UN ECE
United Nations Economic Commission for Europe, responsible for compiling international statistics on production and trade of wood products for Europe, the Russian Federation and North America.
Underbark
The volume of wood excluding the bark.
VAT 
Value Added Tax.
Veneer
A thin layer of wood, produced by peeling or slicing, used for decorative purposes. Veneers are usually applied to less expensive or less attractive substitutes including solid timber, wood-based sheet materials, etc.
Welsh Government
The executive branch of the devolved government of Wales.
Wood pellets
Sawdust or wood shavings compressed into uniform diameter pellets to be burned for heat or energy.
Woodland
Land under stands of trees with a canopy cover of at least 20% (25% in Northern Ireland), or having the potential to achieve this, including integral open space, and including felled areas that are awaiting restocking.
Wood Raw Material Equivalent (WRME)
The volume of trees required to produce a wood product. Can be measured underbark or overbark.