Forestry Statistics 2008

Glossary

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broadleaves
Trees that do not have needles or cones (a few, such as alder, have cone-like structures for their seeds which are not true cones).
cement bonded particleboard
Sheet material manufactured under pressure, based on wood and other vegetable particles bound with hydraulic cement and possibly containing additives.
chipboard
(see Particleboard).
conifers
Trees with needles and cones .
coppice
Trees that are cut near ground level (or sometimes higher in which case they are pollards), causing them to produce many small shoots.  These shoots are harvested every few years at a relatively early age for products such as staves, fencing, fuel and charcoal.  'Coppice with standards' includes scattered trees that are left to grow as normal ('standards').
Defra
Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs. 
establishment
The first five to ten years or formative period that ends once young trees are of sufficient size that, given adequate protection, they are likely to survive at the required stocking.
FAO
United Nations Food and Agriculture Organisation, responsible for the Forest Resources Assessment and for compiling international statistics on production and trade of wood products.
FC
Forestry Commission: the government department responsible for forestry matters in Great Britain. The responsibility for forestry is devolved to ministers in the Scottish Parliament and Welsh Assembly, but the executive functions are exercised throughout Great Britain by the FC.
fibreboard
Panel material with thickness equal to or greater than 1.5mm, manufactured from lignocellulosic fibres with application of heat and/or pressure.  The bond is derived either from the felting of the fibres and their inherent adhesive properties or from a synthetic binder added to the fibres.
forest
In the United Kingdom, there is no formal definition of 'forest'; the term is often used for large areas (especially conifers) or for old Royal hunting preserves such as the New Forest or the Forest of Dean.
FS
Northern Ireland Forest Service (an agency of the Department of Agriculture and Rural Development).
FSC
Forest Stewardship Council.
GB
Great Britain: England, Scotland and Wales.
green tonne
Weight measurement of timber fresh felled before any natural or artificial drying has occurred.
ha
hectare (2.471 acres).
hardwood
The wood of broadleaved trees, a term sometimes used for the broadleaved trees themselves.
high forest
Trees capable of growing to be suitable for timber production (compare with coppice).
MDF (medium-density fibreboard)
Wood fibreboard made by a dry process in which the primary bond is derived from a bonding agent, and having a density usually exceeding 600 kg m3.
native species
Species that have arrived and inhabited an area naturally, without deliberate assistance by man.  For trees and shrubs in the United Kingdom usually taken to mean those present after post-glacial recolonisation and before historic times.  Some species are only native in particular regions - hence locally native.
natural colonisation
Creation of new woodland by natural means, i.e. without sowing or planting.
natural regeneration
Regeneration of existing woodland by natural means, i.e. without sowing or planting.
new planting
Establishing woodland on ground that was not woodland in the recent past.
NI
Northern Ireland.
NIWT
National Inventory of Woodland and Trees.
ONS
Office for National Statistics.
OSB (oriented strand board)
Multi-layered board made from strands of wood of a predetermined shape and thickness together with a binder.  The strands in the external layers are aligned and parallel to the board length or width.
overbark
The volume of wood including the bark.  Can be either standing volume or felled volume.
particleboard
Panel material manufactured under pressure and heat from particles of wood (wood (also chipboard) flakes, chips, shavings, sawdust) in particle form, with the addition of an adhesive.
plywood
Woodbased panel consisting of an assembly of layers bonded together with the direction of the grain in adjacent layers, usually at right angles.  (Not made in the UK).
pulp
A fibrous material produced by mechanically or chemically reducing wood into their component parts from which pulp, paper and paperboard sheets are formed after proper slushing and treatment or used for dissolving purposes (dissolving pulp or chemical cellulose) to make rayon, plastics, and other synthetic products.  Sometimes called wood pulp.
recovered
Either industrial process by-products (e.g. offcuts or fines from a board manufacturing mill, furniture factory, joinery or construction) or from post-consumer waste wood (e.g. pallets, construction waste) after the stage of recovery or reclamation for purposes of recycling.
restocking
The replanting of an area after trees are removed.
roundwood
Logs and small branches (small roundwood).
sawlogs
Material of at least 14 cm top diameter that is destined to be sawn into planks or boards.
sawmill products
Materials including wood chips, sawdust and bark which arise during the conversion of logs to sawn timber.  Most used as inputs to other wood processing industries, or sold for other uses. Formerly called sawmill residues or co-products.
sawnwood
Sawn timber - timber that has been cut into planks or boards from logs.
scrub
Area of poorly formed trees or bushes unsuitable for conversion to timber.
Scottish Government
Devolved government in Scotland.  Previously the Scottish Executive.
semi-natural
Woodland with natural characteristics (predominantly native species of trees, ground plants and animals) where wood production is not a primary objective; this term is used rather than natural because the woodland may have originally been planted or have been managed for wood production in the past.
silviculture
The care and cultivation of forest trees.
softwood
The wood of coniferous trees or conifers themselves.
SRC
Short rotation coppice (either willow or poplar).
standing volume
Measurement of quantity before trees are felled.  Usually expressed as cubic metres overbark standing.
thinning
A proportion of stems removed in order to give the best stems space and light to grow into a more valuable crop.  This is usually carried out some time after canopy closure and may be repeated at intervals.  It is a necessary operation in the production of quality timber.  A temporary reduction in standing volume will result.
UK
United Kingdom: Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
UKFPA
United Kingdom Forest Products Association.
UN ECE
United Nations Economic Commission for Europe, responsible for compiling international statistics on production and trade of wood products for Europe, the Russian Federation and North America.
underbark
The volume of wood excluding the bark.
veneer
A thin layer of wood, produced by peeling or slicing, used for decorative purposes.  Veneers are usually applied to less expensive or less attractive substitutes including solid timber, woodbased sheet materials, etc.
Welsh Assembly Government
Devolved government in Wales.
woodland
Land under stands of trees with a canopy cover of at least 20% (25% in Northern Ireland), or having the potential to achieve this, including integral open space, and including felled areas that are awaiting restocking.
WRME
Wood Raw Material Equivalent - the volume of trees required to produce a wood product.  Can be measured underbark or overbark.