- Outbreak stage
- How it spreads
- Susceptible trees
- Bark industry
- Report a sighting
- Images and publications
An update on our 2014 programme of aerial surveys (PDF, 4MB) for symptoms of ramorum disease of larch trees in England has been published. The pattern of observation over the survey season has consistently comprised limited, low-level symptoms which have generally been close to previously confirmed infection or in association with infected rhododendron. Follow-up investigations of the small number of new areas of infection found have generally confirmed infected rhododendron as the likely source of infection.
Some localised death and dieback of sweet chestnut trees has been found in South-West England, and these are being required to be felled for disease control purposes because sweet chestnut is a sporulating (spore-producing) host plant.
Also, low-level damage has been observed on non-sporulating host species including Douglas fir, Noble fir and western hemlock on sites where infected larch had previously been felled, demonstrating P. ramorum's potential to persist on sites where large amounts of inoculum (infective spores) have been generated.
The aerial surveillance programme is undertaken in collaboration with Wales and Northern Ireland, so the report includes maps showing the surveillance flight tracks over all three countries, and of the woodland surveyed in England and Wales. FC Scotland conducts its own aerial surveillance programme. The outbreak map shows where ramorum disease has been confirmed in larch across the whole United Kingdom.
Phytophthora ramorum (P. ramorum) is a fungus-like pathogen which causes extensive damage and mortality to a wide range of trees and other plants.
The generic name for the disease it causes is Ramorum disease. The disease is known in the USA as 'sudden oak death' because different strains of the pathogen cause disease and mortality among North American native oak and tanoak species. However, the strains of P. ramorum found in Britain have had little effect on British native oak species. It is sometimes referred to in Britain as 'Larch tree disease' and 'Japanese larch disease' because larch trees are particularly susceptible, and large numbers have been affected.
The first UK finding was made on viburnum in February 2002 at a garden centre in Sussex. The first record of P. ramorum on a mature tree in the UK was on a 100-year-old Quercus falcata (southern red oak) in November 2003.
It is impossible to ascertain when P. ramorum first entered Britain or where it came from. However, contrary to some views, research has shown that it did not arrive here from the USA, where different forms of the pathogen occur. The evidence suggests that P. ramorum is native to another part of the world, possibly Asia. Other European countries (Germany and The Netherlands) are now known to have had findings of the pathogen (as a then unknown Phytophthora) on shrubs dating back to 1993, but these are also likely to have been introduced.
P. ramorum has been found on nursery stock in a number of other European countries including Belgium, the Czech Republic, Netherlands, Denmark, France, Ireland, Italy, Spain (including the Balearics), Slovenia, and Sweden.
Few trees in the UK were affected until 2009, when P. ramorum was found infecting and killing large numbers of Japanese larch trees in South West England. Then in 2010 it was found on Japanese larches in Wales, Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. In 2011 it was found in western Scotland.
Evidence from California and Oregon indicates that P. ramorum can be spread over several miles in mists, air currents, watercourses and rainsplash. We also know that Phytophthora pathogens can be spread on footwear, dogs’ paws, bicycle wheels, tools and equipment etc. Movement of infected plants is also a key means of spreading it over long distances.
These include larch (Larix) species and Quercus rubra (northern red oak); Q. cerris (Turkey oak), Q. ilex (holm oak); Fagus sylvatica (beech), Castanea sativa (sweet chestnut), and Aesculus hippocastanum (horse chestnut). In Britain we have found Douglas fir to be a host but, unlike the situation in the USA where the impact has been minor, a number of younger Douglas fir trees of about 5 – 10 years of age have been killed in south-west England. It has been confirmed on a small number of Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis), another commercially important conifer species widely grown in the British Isles.
The discovery of the diseased in Japanese larch trees (Larix kaempferi) in south-west England in 2009 was the first time it had been found causing lethal infection (in the form of stem cankers) on a commercially important conifer species anywhere in the world.
On trees, symptoms include lesions – sometimes known as bleeding cankers - which exude fluid from infected bark, visible as a black exudate which can dry to a crust on the trunk. The inner bark under this bleeding area is usually discoloured and dying. Trees die when the lesions become extensive on the main trunk. Infection by P. ramorum on Japanese larch can take two forms. Shoots and foliage can be affected, visible as wilted, withered shoot tips with blackened needles. The infected shoots shed their needles prematurely. Trees with branch dieback can have numerous resinous cankers on the branches and upper trunk. On other plants, it infects the leaves and shoots of ornamental shrubs such as rhododendron, viburnum, pieris and camellia. Although it does not usually kill these plants, infected leaves of some of these ‘foliar hosts’ can generate many spores, and in sufficient numbers these spores can then infect the bark of certain tree species. Typical symptoms on rhododendron include leaf-blackening, wilted shoots and die-back. On individual leaves, blackening of the leaf stalk usually extends into the leaf along the mid-vein, although blackening at the leaf tip can also occur. The progress of the disease can be so rapid that shoots wilt and the leaves hang down.
Diagnosis uses a combination of visual inspection by trained observers, and field tests of symptomatic bark and needles with test kits known as lateral flow devices (LFDs). These are commercially available, pocket-sized kits which can give an indication in 5-10 minutes of whether a Phytophthora organism is present in the symptomatic tissue. Laboratory tests are required to either isolate the pathogen or detect its DNA to confirm the exact species. Laboratory tests to diagnose P. ramorum in larch bark and foliage present a number of technical challenges, and return a conclusive result in about 80% of all symptomatic material sent in for testing, so we cannot rely solely on laboratory tests. If, however, laboratory analysis confirms the presence of another causal agent, the site will not be classed as infected, but will be kept under surveillance.
Simple precautions such as cleaning footwear, tools, vehicles and clothing are strongly advised in outbreak areas to prevent further spread.
No cure has been found and there are no effective chemical treatments available. There are fungicides which can suppress the symptoms, but none will kill the pathogen. So the objective of any control approach must be to prevent or minimise any further spread of P. ramorum and the damage it causes. The best available scientific advice is to remove and kill the living plant tissue on which the organism depends for reproduction. In the case of infected larch, this means affected trees should be felled or otherwise killed as quickly as possible after detection of the disease and before the next spring or autumn period of sporulation begins on the needles.
We commissioned a study to improve understanding of the scale and nature of the softwood bark industry in Great Britain. The report considers how the increase in fellings of larch infected by P. ramorum is affecting the market, and how these impacts might develop over the next few years.
Given the seriousness of this pathogen, we serve statutory Plant Health Notices on woodland owners requiring their infected trees to be felled. We ensure that private-sector interests are addressed and taken into consideration as we develop our strategy for dealing with this threat, through representation on our Outbreak Management Team from the Confederation of Forest Industries (ConFor) and the UK Forest Products Association (UKFPA), and through meetings with key sector representatives. We have extensive infection within our own Japanese larch woodlands, and undertaking felling on all of our infected sites. We have also defined three risk zones in Great Britain, based on the risk of pathogen spread in each from ‘high’ in Risk Zone 1 to ‘low’ in Risk Zone 3. The boundaries of the risk zones are kept under review as the situation develops. A system has been established for recording the rate of spread of the pathogen based on notifications and aerial survey, and regular updates are made to the outbreak map.
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Last updated: 11/20/2014