Menu

Clive Brasier, BSc, PhD, DSc

Emeritus Mycologist, Tree Health

Clive Brasier

Email: clive.brasier@forestry.gsi.gov.uk

Tel: +44 (0)300 067 5600
Tel direct: +44 (0)300 067 5624
Fax: +44 (0)1420 23653

Address:
Forest Research
Alice Holt Lodge
Farnham
Surrey GU10 4LH
UK

Clive Brasier took his first degree in Botany and studied for a PhD on Physiology of Reproduction in Phytophthora at Hull University between 1960 and 1966. From 1966-1969 he was appointed Junior Research Fellow in the Genetics Department at Birmingham University, working on ecological genetics of Basidiomycete populations and teaching genetics of host-pathogen interactions. Clive joined Forest Research in 1969 as Mycologist, specialising in all aspects of Phytophthora and Dutch elm disease pathogens from their pathology and epidemiology to their taxonomy, genetics and evolution. He gained his DSc in Plant Biology and Genetics from the University of Hull in 1984. In 1995 he was awarded Individual Merit Promotion Scientist status, reporting directly to what is now Government Office for Science. In the same year he was made Visiting Professor in Mycology at the Department of Biology, Imperial College London. He became Emeritus Mycologist at Forest Research on his formal retirement from the payroll in 2002.

Current role

Emeritus Mycologist, Tree Health

Mycologist, forest pathologist, genetecist specialising in reform of national and international plant health (biosecurity) protocols; understanding genetic risk from introduced pathogens, including geographic origins and potential for rapid evolution via adaptation and horizontal gene transfer; identifying population units and species boundaries in tree pathogens - continuous variation, fitness, breeding systems and molecular profiles; potential for biological control with fungal viruses; Phytophthora infection behaviour in trees

Providing pedagogic support to Forest Research staff and students.

Currently collaborating with scientists in USA, Italy, Nepal, Taiwan, Japan and New Zealand.

Other affiliations and responsibilities

  • Honorary Fellow, British Mycological Society
  • Honorary Fellow, American Phytopathological Society
  • Honorory Member, British Society for Plant Pathology
  • Fellow, The Linnean Society
  • Member, The Genetical Society
  • Leverhulme Emeritus Fellowship 2009-2012
  • Visiting Professor, Imperial College 1995-2008
  • Council, International Society for Plant Pathology
  • European Chair, Phytophthora Group, International Union of Forest Research Organisations, 1997-2012
  • Science and Education Committee, Royal Horticultural Society, 1999-2011
  • Defra Phytophthora Programme Science Advisory Committee.

Research areas

  • Biology, pathology and epidemiology of Phytophthora ramorum and P. lateralis*
  • Genetic structure, breeding behaviour and evolution of Phytophthora ramorum and P. lateralis populations
  • Geographic origins of Dutch elm disease pathogens
  • Horizontal gene transfer between Dutch elm disease pathogens
  • Virus mediated biocontrol of Dutch elm disease

*Includes expeditions to Nepal (2005, 2007) and Taiwan (2008, 2010) to search for origins of P. ramorum and P. lateralis.


Selected Invited Lectures 2009-2012

6th IUFRO Symposium: Phytophthoras in forests and natural ecosystems, Cordoba, Spain, 9-18 September 2012. “EU2, a fourth evolutionary lineage of Phytophthora ramorum”, “Four phenotypically distinct lineages identified within Phytophthora lateralis”, “Fitness, selection and evolutionary divergence in Phytophthora”, “Landscape scale epidemic of Phytophthora ramorum on larch in the UK” (with J. F. Webber).

5th sudden Oak Death Science Symposium, Petaluma, California, June 2012:

“EU2, a fourth evolutionary lineage in Phytophthora ramorum”, “Specialist plant imports and forest biosecurity”.

American Phytopathological Society – IPPC Joint Meeting, Honolulu, Hawaii, August 2011. Symposium: The Developing Crisis. International Movement of Insects and Pathogens in Commercial Trade. “Flaws in international protocols for preventing entry and spread of pathogens via "plants for planting" (PDF-3936).

4th International Workshop on Genetics of Host-Parasite Interactions in Forestry, Eugene, Oregon, August 2011. “Rapid evolution of tree pathogens via episodic selection and horizontal gene transfer with special reference to Dutch elm disease”.

Conférences Jacques Monod, Roscoff, France, June 2011, New and Emerging Fungal Diseases of Animals and Plants: Evolutionary aspects in the context of global changes. “Rapid pathogen evolution via episodic selection, clonal speciation and horizontal gene transfer”.

Plant Health Committee, European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), Parma, Italy, April 2011. Quarantine pest status assessment (P. ramorum): “Spread of Phytophthora ramorum on to foliage and stems of mature plantation larch (Larix) in the UK” (with J.F. Webber) and “New tree hosts and new disease etiologies beneath larch (Larix) infected by Phytophthora ramorum in the UK” (with J.F. Webber).

5th IUFRO Symposium: Phytophthoras in forests and natural ecosystems, Rotorua, New Zealand, March 2010. “Discovery of Phytophthora lateralis on old growth Chamaecyparis in Taiwan” (with others).

Commission on Phytosanitary Measures, International Plant Protection Convention, UN FAO, Rome, March 2010. “Scientific and operational flaws in international protocols for preventing entry and spread of plant pathogens via ‘plants for planting’(PDF-4411).

European Plant Protection Organisation, Angers, France, September 2009. Symposium: Increasing trade, changing climate, emerging pests: is the plant health sector prepared? “Scientific and operational weaknesses of the current system to prevent entry and spread of plant pathogens”.

2nd Annual Meeting National Plant Diagnostic Network, Miami, Florida, December 2009. “Scientific and operational flaws in international protocols for preventing entry and spread of plant pathogens”.

4th Sudden Oak Death Science Symposium on, Santa Cruz, California, June 2009. “Forest Biosecurity, Phytophthora Diversity and Trade : Exploring the Risks”.

EU COST, Established and Emerging Phytophthora: Increasing Threats to Woodland and Forest Ecosystems in Europe, Zakopane, Slovakia, April 2009. “Biosecurity protocol, nursery trade and Phytophthora : a triple threat to Europe’s trees and forests”.

American Phytopathological Society Annual Meeting, Portland, Oregon, August 2009. Symposium on Phytophthora : “Progress in Phytophthora Evolutionary Biology: 1983 Revisited”.

Darwin Bicentennial Meeting ‘Biology 09’, Berne, Switzerland, February 2009. “Globally invading plant pathogens: Rapid evolution via episodic selection and interspecific gene transfer”.


Main publications since 2000

General

Brasier C.M. (2012). Rapid evolution of tree pathogens via episodic selection and horizontal gene transfer (PDF-1530K). In Proceedings of the 4th International Workshop on Genetics of Host-Parasite Interactions in Forestry.USDA PSW-GTR General Technical Report 240, pp 133-142.

Brasier, C.M. & Webber, J.F. (2010). Sudden larch death (PDF-K). Nature 466, 824-825. doi: 10.1038/466824a

Brasier, C.M. (2008). The biosecurity threat to the UK and global environment from international trade in plants (PDF-189K)http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-3059.2008.01886.x/abstract. Plant Pathology 57, 792-808. Also: New tree/natural environment disease outbreaks UK 1970-2012 (PDF-108K).

Brasier, C.M. (2008).  Eva Sansome (1906-2001) – Pioneer in fungal and oomycete  cytogenetics.  In Pioneering women in plant pathology (J. B. Ristaino ed.) pp. 139 -142 . American Phytopathological Society, St Paul, Minnesota.

Brasier, C.M. (2005). Preventing invasive pathogens: deficiencies in the system (PDF-2638K). The Plantsman (new series) 4, 54-57.

Brasier, C.M. (2002).  Evolution of forest pathogens via interspecific hybridization.  In Proc. USDA Interagency Research Forum on Invasive Species, 15-18 January 2002.  (S.L.C. Fosbroke and K.W. Gottschalk  eds).  Pp. 3-4. USDA.

Brasier, C.M. (2001). Rapid evolution of introduced plant pathogens via interspecific hybridization.  Bioscience  51, 123-133.

Brasier, C.M. (2000). Rise of the hybrid fungi.  Nature  405, 134-135. 

Phytophthora

Brasier, C.M., Franceschini, S., Vettraino, A.M., Hansen, E.M., Green, S., Robin, C., Webber, J.F. & Vannini, A. (2012). Four phenotypically and phylogenetically distinct lineages in Phytophthora lateralis. Fungal Biology 116: 1232-1249.

Van Poucke, K., Franceschini, S., Webber, J.F, Vercauteren, A., Turner, J.A., McCracken, A., Heungens, K. & Brasier, C.M. (2012). Discovery of a fourth evolutionary lineage of Phytophthora ramorum: EU2. Fungal Biology 116: 1178-1191.

Nechwatal, J., Bakonyi, J., Cacciola, S.O., Cooke, D.E.L., Jung, T., Nagy, Z.A., Vannini, A., Vettraino, A.M. & Brasier, C.M. (2012). The morphology, behaviour and molecular phylogeny of Phytophthora taxon Salixsoil and its redesignation as Phytophthora lacustris sp. nov. Plant Pathology 62: 355-369.

Webber, J. F., Vettraino, A. M., Chang, T. T., Bellgard, S.E., Brasier, C.M. & Vannini, A. (2012). Isolation of Phytophthora lateralis from Chamaecyparis foliage in Taiwan. Forest Pathology, 42: 136-143.

Green, S., Schlenzig, A., McCracken, A., MacAskill, G.A., Wilson, M. & Webber, J.F. (2012). The destructive invasive pathogen Phytophthora lateralis found on Chamaecyparis lawsoniana across the UK. Forest Pathology 43: 19-28.

Vettraino A.M., Brasier, C.M., Brown, A.V. & Vannini, A. (2011). Phytophthora himalsilva sp. nov. an unusually phenotypically variable species from a remote forest in Nepal. Fungal biology, 115:3, 275-287.

Webber, J.F., Mullett, M. & Brasier, C.M. (2010). Dieback and mortality of plantation Japanese larch (Larix kaempferi) associated with infection by Phytophthora ramorum. Plant Pathology New Disease Reports 22, 19.

Brasier, C.M., Vettraino, A.M., Chang, T.T. & Vannini, A. (2010). Phytophthora lateralis discovered in a Taiwan old growth Chamaecyparis forest.  Plant Pathology 59, 595-6O3.

Grünwald, N.J., Goss, E.M., Ivors, K., Brasier, C., Denman, S., Webber, J. & others (2009). Standardizing the nomenclature for clonal lineages of the sudden oak death pathogen, Phytophthora ramorum. Phytopathology, 99, 792-795.

Brasier, C.M. (2009). Phytophthora biodiversity: How many Phytophthora species are there? In Phytophthoras in Forests and Natural Ecosystems. (Goheen, E.M. and Frankel, S.J. eds). Proceedings of the Fourth International Union of Forest Research Organisations (IUFRO) Working Party 7.02.09. General Technical Report PSW-GTR-221. Albany, CA: USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, pp. 101-115.

Jung, T., Vannini, A. & Brasier, C.M. (2009). Progress in understanding Phytophthora diseases of trees in Europe 2004-2007. In Phytophthoras in Forests and Natural Ecosystems. (Goheen, E.M. and Frankel, S.J. eds). Proceedings of the Fourth International Union of Forest Research Organisations (IUFRO) Working Party 7.02.09. General Technical Report PSW-GTR-221. Albany, CA: USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, pp. 3-24.

Brown, A.V. & Brasier, C.M. (2007). Colonization of tree xylem by Phytophthora ramorum, P. kernoviae and other Phytophthora species. Plant Pathology 56, 227-241

Brasier, C., Kirk, S. & Rose, J. (2006). Differences in phenotypic stability and adaptive variation between the main European and American lineages of Phytophthora ramorum. In: Progress in Research on Phytophthora Diseases of Forest Trees. (Brasier, C.M., Jung, T., Oßwald, W., eds). Proceedings of the 3rd International IUFRO Working Party 7.02.09 Meeting, Freising, Germany 11th –17th September 2004, pp. 166-173. Forest Research, Farnham, UK.

Brasier, C.M. & Jung, T. (2006) Recent developments in Phytophthora diseases of trees and natural ecosystems in Europe. In: Progress in Research on Phytophthora Diseases of Forest Trees. (Brasier, C.M., Jung, T., Oßwald, W., eds). Proceedings of the 3rd International IUFRO Working Party 7.02.09 Meeting, Freising, Germany 11th –17th September 2004, pp. 5-16. Forest Research, Farnham UK.

Dick, M.A., Dobbie, K., Cooke, D.E.L. & Brasier, C.M. (2006). Phytophthora captiosa sp. nov and Phytophthora fallax sp. nov. causing crown dieback of Eucalyptus in New Zealand. Mycological Research 110, 393-404.

Denman, S., Kirk, S.A., Brasier, C.M. & Webber, J.F. (2005). In vitro leaf inoculation studies as an indication of tree foliage susceptibility to Phytophthora ramorum in the UK.  Plant Pathology  54, 512–521.

Brasier, C.M., Beales, P.A., Kirk, S.A., Denman, S. & Rose, J. (2005). Phytophthora kernoviae sp. nov., an invasive pathogen causing bleeding stem lesions on forest trees and foliar necrosis of ornamentals in Britain. Mycological Research 109, 1–7.

Brasier, C.M., Denman, S., Rose, J., Kirk, S.A., Hughes, K.J.D., Griffin, R.L., Lane, C.R., Inman, A.J. & Webber, J.F. (2004). First report of ramorum bleeding canker on Quercus falcata, caused by Phytophthora ramorum. Plant Pathology  53, 804.

Brasier, C.M., Denman, S., Brown, A. & Webber, J.F. (2004). Sudden oak death (Phytophthora ramorum) discovered on trees in Europe. (Mycological Research News). Mycological Research 108, 1107–1110

Brasier, C.M. & Kirk, S.A. (2004). Production of gametangia by Phytophthora ramorum in vitro. Mycological Research 108, 823-827.

Brasier, C.M., Kirk, S.A., Delcan, J., Cooke, D.E.L., Jung, T. & Man in’t Veld, W.A. (2004a). Phytophthora alni sp. nov. and its variants: designation of emerging heteroploid hybrid pathogens spreading on Alnus trees. Mycological Research 108, 1172–1184

Brasier, C.M. (2003).  Sudden oak death: Phytophthora ramorum exhibits transatlantic differences.  Mycological Research 107, 257-259.

Brasier, C.M. (2003).  The hybrid alder Phytophthoras: their genetic status, cultural properties pathogenicity, distribution and survival.  In ‘Phytophthora disease of alder in Europe’.  Forestry Commission Bulletin 126, pp. 51-60.   London, HMSO.

Brasier, C.M. & Jung, T. (2003).  Progress in understanding Phytophthora diseases of trees in Europe.  In ‘Phytophthora in forests and natural ecosystems’, (J.A. McComb, G.E.StJ. Hardy and I. Tommerup, eds.) pp. 4-18. Murdoch University, Perth, Western Australia.

Brasier, C.M., Sanchez-Hernandez, E. & Kirk, S.A. (2003).  Phytophthora inundata sp. nov., a part heterothallic pathogen of trees and shrubs in wet or flooded soils.  Mycological Research 107, 477-484.

Brasier, C.M., Cooke, D.E.L., Duncan, J.M. & Hansen, E. (2003).  Multiple new phenotypic taxa from trees and riparian ecosystems in Phytophthora gonapodyides – P. megasperma ITS Clade 6, which tend to be high-temperature tolerant and either unbreeding or sterile.  Mycological Research 107, 277-290.

Sanchez-Hernandez, M.E., Munoz-Garcia, M., Brasier, C.M. & Trapero-Casa, A. (2001).  Identity and pathogenicity of two Phytophthora taxa associated with a new root disease of olive trees.  Plant Disease 85, 411-416.

Delcan, J. & Brasier, C.M. (2001).  Oospore viability and variation in zoospore and hyphal tip derivatives of the hybrid alder Phytophthoras.  Forest Pathology 31, 65-83.

Brasier, C.M. & Kirk, S.A. (2001).  Comparative aggressiveness of the standard and variant hybrid alder phytophthoras, Phytophthora cambivora and other Phytophthora species on bark of Alnus, Quercus and other woody hosts. Plant Pathology 50, 218-229.

Brasier, C.M. (2000).  The role of Phytophthora pathogens in forests and semi-natural communities in Europe and Africa.  In ‘Phytophthora diseases of forest trees’ (E.M. Hansen and W. Sutton, eds.) pp. 6-13. Forest Research Laboratory, Oregon State University.

Cooke, D.Ll., Drenthe, A., Wagels, G., Duncan, J.M. & Brasier, C.M. (2000).  A molecular phylogeny of Phytophthora and related Oomycetes.  Fungal Genetics and Biology. 30, 17-32.

Dutch elm disease

Brasier, C.M. & Kirk, S.A. (2010). Rapid emergence of hybrids between the two subspecies of Ophiostoma novo-ulmi with a high level of pathogenic fitness. Plant Pathology 59, 186-199.

Masuya, H., Brasier, C., Ichihara, Y., Kubono, T. & Kanzaki, N. (2009). First report of the Dutch elm disease pathogens Ophiostoma ulmi and O. novo-ulmi in Japan. Plant Pathology New Disease Reports 20, 6.

Paoletti, M., Buck, K.W. & Brasier, C.M. (2006). Selective acquisition of novel mating type and vegetative incompatibility genes via interspecies gene transfer in the globally invading eukaryote Ophiostoma novo-ulmi. Molecular Ecology 14, 249-263.

Paoletti, M., Buck, K.W. & Brasier, C.M. (2005). Cloning and sequence analysis of the Mat - B (Mat-2) genes from the three Dutch elm disease pathogens Ophiostoma ulmi, O. novo-ulmi and Ophiostoma himal-ulmi. Mycological Research 109, 983-991. 

C. M.  Brasier, K. W. Buck, M. Paoletti, L. Crawford & S.A. Kirk (2004). Molecular analysis of evolutionary changes in populations of Ophiostoma novo-ulmi. In ‘New approaches to elm conservation’ (L. Gil, A Solla and G. Oullette, eds.). Forest resources and systems 13, 93-103.

Buck, K.W., Brasier, C.M., Paoletti, M. & Crawford, L. (2002). Virus transmission and gene flow between two species of Dutch elm disease fungi, Ophiostoma ulmi and O. novo-ulmi: deleterious viruses as selective agents for gene introgression. In Genes in the Environment (Hails, R.S., Beringer, J.E. & Godfray, H.C.J. eds.) pp. 26-45. Blackwells, Oxford.

Brasier, C.M. & Buck, K.W. (2002).  Rapid evolutionary changes in a globally invading pathogen, the causal agent of Dutch elm disease.  Biological Invasions 3, 223-233.

Pipe, N., Brasier, C.M. & Buck, K.W. (2001).  Two natural cerato-ulmin deficient mutants of Ophiostoma novo-ulmi: one has an introgressed O. ulmi cu gene; the other has an O. novo-ulmi cu gene with a mutation in an intron splice concensus sequence.  Molecular Plant Pathology 1, 379-382.

Brasier, C.M. & Kirk, S.A. (2001).  Designation of the EAN and NAN races of Ophiostoma novo-ulmi as subspecies.  Mycological Research 105, 547-554.

Brasier, C.M. (2000).  Intercontinental spread and continuing evolution of the Dutch elm disease pathogens.  In: The elms: Breeding, conservation and disease management (C.P. Dunne, ed.) pp. 61-72.  Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston

Pipe, N.D., Brasier, C.M. & Buck, K.W. (2000).  Evolutionary relationship of the Dutch elm disease fungus Ophiostoma novo-ulmi to other Ophiostoma species investigated by RFLP analysis of the rDNA region.  Journal of Phytopathology 148, 533-539.

Brasier, C.M. & Kirk, S.A. (2000). Survival of clones of NAN Ophiostoma novo-ulmi around its probable centre of appearance in North America.  Mycological Research 104, 1322-1332.

Fungal viruses and biological control

Kozlakidis, Z., Hacker, C.V., Bradley, D., Jamal, A., Phoon, X., Webber, J.,  Brasier, C.M., Buck, K.W & Coutts, R.H.A. (2009). Molecular characterisation of two novel double-stranded RNA elements from Phlebiopsis gigantea. Virus Genes, in press.

Doherty, M., Sanganee , K., Kozlakidis, Z., Coutts, R.H.A., Brasier, C.M. & Buck, K.W. (2007). Molecular Characterization of a Totivirus and a Partitivirus from the genus Ophiostoma. Journal of Phytopathology 155, 188-192.

Doherty, M., Coutts, R.H.A., Brasier, C.M. & Buck. K.W. (2006). Sequence of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase genes provides evidence for three more distinct mitoviruses in Ophiostoma novo-ulmi isolate Ld. Virus genes 33, 41-44.

Crawford, L., Osman, T.A.M., Booy, F.P., Coutts, R.H.A., Brasier, C.M. & Buck, K.W. (2006). Molecular characterization of a partitivirus from Ophiostoma himal-ulmi. Virus Genes, 33, 33-39.

Hacker, C.V., Brasier, C.M. & Buck, K.W. (2006). Determination of the 5 ' - and 3 ' -terminal sequences completes the sequences of the two double-stranded RNAs of Penicillium stoloniferum virus. Virus Genes 32, 137-138.

Hacker C.V., Brasier, C.M. & Buck, K.W. (2005). A double stranded RNA from a Phytophthora species is related to the plant endornaviruses and contains a putative UDP glycosyltransferase gene. Journal of General Virology 86, 1561-1570.

Buck, K.W., Brasier, C.M., Paoletti, M. & Crawford, L. (2002).  Virus transmission and gene flow between two species of Dutch elm disease fungi, Ophiostoma ulmi and O. novo-ulmi: deleterious viruses as selective agents for gene introgression.  In: Genes in the environment (Hails, R.S., Beringer, J.E. and Godfrey, H.A., eds.). pp. 26-45.  Blackwells, Oxford.

Buck, K.W. & Brasier, C.M. (2001). Viruses of the Dutch elm disease pathogens. In ‘Molecular variability of double stranded RNA. Concepts and applications in agriculture and forestry and medicine’ (S. Tavantzis, ed.) pp. 165-190. CRC Press, Florida.

Cole, T., Hong, Y., Brasier, C.M. & Buck, K.W. (2000).  Detection of an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase in mitchondria from a mitovirus-infected isolate of the Dutch elm disease fungus, Ophiostoma novo-ulmi.  Virology 268, 239-243.

Brasier, C.M. (2000).  Viruses as biological control agents of the Dutch elm disease fungus Ophiostoma novo-ulmi.  In ‘The elms: Breeding, conservation and disease management’ (C.P. Dunne, ed.) pp. 201-212.  Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston.

Genetic manipulation of elm

Gartland, J.S., Brasier, C.M., Fenning, T.M., Birch, R. & Gartland, K.M.A. (2001). Ri-plasmid mediated transformation of Ulmus procera (English elm).  Plant Growth Regulation 33,123-129.

Gartland, K.M.A., Gartland, J., Fenning, T.M., McHugh, A.T., Irvine, R.J., Main, G.D. &  Brasier, C.M. (2000).  Genetic manipulations with elms.  In ‘The elms: Breeding, conservation and disease management’ (Dunne, C.P., ed.) pp. 259-269.  Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston.

Gartland, J.S., McHugh, A., Fenning, T.M., Irvine, R.J., Brasier, C.M. & Gartland, K.M.A. (2000).  Regeneration of phenotypically normal English elm Ulmus procera plantlets following transformation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens binary vector.  Tree Physiology 20, 901-907.


List of all publications to 2012

All publications (PDF-228K)