Native to Britain and much of Europe.
There is limited knowledge of provenance variation, so seed from seed orchards or good British stands should be preferred; some selected clones are available. Avoid material from eastern and southern Europe which is not adapted to British conditions.
This is a pioneer light demanding species which spreads through seed and suckers. Cold hardy and frost tolerant, but does not tolerate exposure and is sensitive to drought. It grows best on medium to very rich soils of fresh soil moisture status, including on more calcareous sites. Is not suited to dry or waterlogged soils, as well as those of poor soil nutrient status.
Pests and pathogens
Bacterial canker (Pseudomonas syringae pv. morsprunorum) is common and widespread. It can be very disfiguring and sometimes fatal. Pruning wounds can also allow infection by Chondrostereum purpureum (silverleaf) which can be a progressive and often fatal disease.
It is mostly found in mixture with other broadleaves and extensive pure stands are rare. It should generally be favoured by climate warming, other than in eastern Britain where the risks of drought may increase.