Ian Willoughby, BSc, MBA, PhD, FICFor

Programme Group Manager

Email: ian.willoughby@forestry.gsi.gov.uk

Tel: +44 (0)300 067 5600
Tel direct: +44 (0)300 067 5761
Fax: +44 (0)1420 23653

Address:
Forest Research
Alice Holt Lodge
Farnham
Surrey GU10 4LH
UK

Ian obtained a BSc (Honours) in forestry from the University of Wales at Bangor in 1991, an AMBA accredited Masters Degree in Business Administration (MBA) from the Open University in 1999 and a PhD in forestry from the University of Wales at Bangor in 2010. He joined the Forestry Commission in 1991 as a District Forester, has worked for Forest Research since 1992, as well as spending time in management roles in various other parts of the Forestry Commission. 

Current role

Programme Group Manager

Current programmes

Affiliations and achievements

  • Fellow of the Institute of Chartered Foresters
  • Member of the Editorial Board of the journal of Forestry

Research areas

  • Adapting forest regeneration to increase resilience to climate change and biotic threats
  • Forest vegetation management in all establishment and regeneration systems
  • Plant competition and the need to weed
  • Alternatives to pesticides and pesticide reduction
  • Use of pesticides
  • Woodland creation
  • Restoration of woodlands.

Main recent publications

Löf, M., Ersson, B.T.,  Hjältén, J., Nordfjell T., Oliet, J.A. and Willoughby, I. (2015). Chapter 5: Site Preparation Techniques for Forest Restoration. In Stanturf, J.A. (Ed.) (2015). Restoration of Boreal and Temperate Forests, Second Edition. CRC Press. www.crcpress.com ISBN: 978-1-4822-1196-2, eBook ISBN: 978-1-4822-1197-9

Willoughby, I.H. and Stokes, V.J. (2015). Mixture B New Formulation adjuvant increases the rainfastness and hence effectiveness of glyphosate for rhododendron control. Forestry, 88 (2), 172-179.

Willoughby, I.H.,  Seier, M.K., Stokes, V.J., Thomas, S.E., Varia, S. (2015). Synthetic herbicides were more effective than a bioherbicide based on Chondrostereum purpureum in reducing resprouting of Rhododendron ponticum, a host of Phytophthora ramorum in the UK
Forestry 88 (3), 336-344.

Stokes, V.J. and Willoughby, I.H. (2014). Early weed control can increase long-term growth, yield and carbon sequestration of Sitka spruce stands in Britain . Forestry 87, 425-435.

Willoughby, I. (2013). Using chemicals in the forest. Operational Guidance Booklet 15. Forestry Commission internal report. Forestry Commission, Edinburgh. 73 pp.

Willoughby, I.H., Ralph Harmer, R., Morgan, G.W., Peace, A. (2013). Triclopyr applied in the winter dormant season can give effective control of bramble (Rubus fruticosus L. agg.) without damaging young tree seedlings or other non-target vegetation (PDF-1520K). doi: 10.1093/forestry/cps053. Forestry (86): 59-69.

Willoughby, I.H., Jinks, R.L., Morgan, G.W., Pepper, H., Budd, J. and Mayle, B. (2011). The use of repellents to reduce predation of tree seed by wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus L.) and grey squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis Gmelin). European Journal of Forest Research, 130, 601-611.

Stokes, V. and Willoughby, I. (2011). The impact of bracken control on establishment of Corsican pine (Pinus nigra subsp. laricio (Maire)) and on pine weevil (Hylobius abietis (L.)) damage. Aspects of Applied Biology 108, 217-224.

Stokes, V. and Willoughby, I. (2011). A comparison of cover crops, direct seeding and herbicides in the establishment of ash trees (Fraxinus excelsior (L.)) in lowland Britain. Quarterly Journal of Forestry 105 (1), 19-28.

McCarthy, N., Bentsen, N.S., Willoughby, I. and Balandier, P. (2011). The state of forest vegetation management in Europe in the 21st century. European Journal of Forest Research 130, 7-16.

Willoughby, I., Wilcken, C., Ivey, P., O’Grady, K., and Katto, F. (2009). Forest Stewardship Council guide to integrated pest, disease and weed management in FSC certified forests and plantations (PDF-1290K). FSC Technical Series No. 2009-001.

Willoughby, I. and Jinks, R.L. (2009). The effect of duration of vegetation management on broadleaved woodland creation by direct seeding. Forestry 82 (3), 343-359.

Willoughby, I., Stokes, V. and Kerr, G. (2009). Side shelter on lowland sites can benefit early growth of ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.) and sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.). Forestry 82 (2), 199-210.

Willoughby, I., Balandier, P., Bentsen, N.S., McCarthy, N. and Claridge, J. (Eds.) (2009). Forest vegetation management in Europe: current practice and future requirements (PDF-3839K). COST Office, Brussels. pp156.

Willoughby, I., Stokes, V., Poole, J., White, J.E.J. and Hodge, S.J. (2007). The potential of 44 native and non native species for woodland creation on a range of contrasting sites in lowland Britain (PDF-1311K). Forestry, 80 (5), 531-553.

Willoughby, I., Dixon, F.L., Clay, D.V. and Jinks, R.L. (2007). Tolerance of broadleaved tree and shrub seedlings to preemergence herbicides (PDF-924K). New Forests 34, 1-12.

Willoughby, I. (2007). Using dye markers to reduce pesticide use (PDF-610K). Forestry Commission Technical Note 16. Forestry Commission, Edinburgh.

Willoughby, I., Harrison, A., Jinks, R.L., Gosling, P.G., Harmer, R. and Kerr, G. (2007). The potential for direct seeding of birch on restock sites (PDF-386K). Forestry Commission Information Note 84. Forestry Commission, Edinburgh.

Harmer, R. and Willoughby, I. (2007). Controlling bramble within an oak woodland using herbicides. Aspects of Applied Biology 82, 165-173.

Stokes, V.J. and Willoughby, I. (2007). Tolerance of trees to foliar acting herbicides. Aspects of Applied Biology 82, 91-101.

Willoughby, I., Clay, D.V. and Dixon, F.L. (2006). The effect of competition from different weed species on the growth of Betula pendula seedlings (PDF-590K). Canadian Journal of Forest Research 36 (8), 1891-1899.

Willoughby, I., Dixon, F.L. and Clay, D.V. (2006). Dormant season vegetation management in broadleaved transplants and direct sown ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.) seedlings (PDF-317K). Forest Ecology and Management 222, 418-426.
Summary

Willoughby, I., Jinks, R.L. and Stokes, V. (2006). The tolerance of newly emerged broadleaved tree seedlings to the herbicides clopyralid, cycloxydim and metazachlor (PDF-824K). Forestry, 79 (4): 599-608.

Dixon, F.L., Clay, D.V., and Willoughby, I. (2006). The efficacy of pre-emergence herbicides on problem weeds in woodland regeneration (PDF-22K). Crop Protection 25 (3), 259-268.
Summary

Clay, D.V., Dixon, F.L. and Willoughby, I. (2006). Weed control in mist-propagated Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.) cuttings (PDF-905K). Quarterly Journal of Forestry, 100 (3) 193-200.

Dixon, F.L., Clay, D.V. and Willoughby, I. (2006). Evaluation of the selectivity of herbicides as potential replacements for atrazine in forestry (PDF-5587K). Scottish Forestry 60 (3), 6-14.

Dixon, F.L., Clay, D.V., and Willoughby, I. (2006). The potential of safeners and protectants to increase tolerance of tree seeds to pre-emergence herbicides (PDF-505K). Quarterly Journal of Forestry, 100 (2) 107-114.

Dixon, F.L., Clay, D.V., and Willoughby, I. (2006). The efficacy of graminicides on grass weed species of forestry (PDF-20K). Crop Protection, 2006 Vol 25 (9), pages 1039-1050.

Jinks, R.L., Willoughby, I. and Baker, C. (2006). Direct seeding of ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.) and sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.): the effects of sowing date, site conditions and pre-emergent herbicides on seedling emergence and survival (PDF-305K). Forest Ecology and Management 237, 373-386.

Little, K., Willoughby, I., Wagner, R.G., Adams, P., Frochot, H., Gava, J., Gous, S., Lautenschlager, R.A., Örlander, G., Sankaran, K.V. and Wei, R.P. (2006). Towards reduced herbice use in forest vegetation management (PDF-279K). Southern African Forestry Journal 207, 63-79.

Clay, D.V., Dixon, F.L. and Willoughby, I. (2005). Natural products as herbicides for tree establishment (PDF-92K). Forestry 78 (1), 1-9.
Summary and practical implications

Carter, A.D. and Willoughby, I. (2005). Farm woodland management, 40pp. In, Soffe, R.J. (ed.) (2005) The Countryside Notebook. Blackwell Science, Oxford.

Dixon, F.L., Clay, D.V. and Willoughby, I. (2005). An investigation into the relative efficacy of herbicides for the control of Deschampsia flexuosa (L.) Trin. in woodland establishment (PDF-106K). Forestry 78 (3), 229-238.
Summary and practical implications

Dixon, F.L., Clay, D.V. and Willoughby, I. (2005). Tolerance of young trees to applications of clopyralid. Forestry 78 (4).
Summary and practical implications

Willoughby, I. (2004). Using colour to protect woodlands (PDF-529K).The Colourist, Issue 1, Spring, p6.

Willoughby, I. (2004).  Reducing pesticide use in forestry (PDF-414K). Forestry and British Timber, 33 (2).

Willoughby, I. (2004). Expert help on herbicide selection (PDF-375K). Forestry and British Timber, 33 (2).

Willoughby, I., Jinks, R.L., Gosling, P.G., and Kerr, G. (2004). Creating new broadleaved woodlands by direct seeding (PDF-647K). Forestry Commission Practice Guide, 50pp.

Willoughby, I., Evans, H., Gibbs, J., Pepper, H., Gregory, S., Dewar, J., Pratt, J., McKay, H. (2004). Reducing pesticide use in forestry. Forestry Commission Practice Guide, Forestry Commission, Edinburgh, 140pp.

Willoughby, I., Jinks, R.L., Kerr, G. and Gosling, P.G. (2004). Factors affecting the success of direct seeding for new woodland creation. Forestry, 77 (5), 467-482.
Summary and practical implications

Thomson, A.J. and Willoughby, I. (2004). A web based expert system for advising on herbicide use in Great Britain (PDF-208K). Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, 42 43-49.
Summary and practical implications

Willoughby, I., Clay, D.V. and Dixon, F.L. (2003). The effect of pre-emergent herbicides on germination and early growth of broadleaved species used for direct seeding (PDF-81K). Forestry 76 (1), 83-94.

Brown, A., Willoughby, I., Clay, D.V., Moore, R and Dixon, F.L. (2003). The use of dye markers as a method of reducing herbicide use and potential environmental impacts (PDF-354K). Forestry, 76 (4) 371-384.

Willoughby, I., and Clay, D.V. (2002). Natural product herbicides in forestry: what are the prospects? (PDF-756K). Forestry and British Timber 31 (2), 22-25.

Willoughby, I., Clay, D.V. and Moore, R. (2002). The identification of  dye markers to improve targeting and help achieve reductions in herbicide use. In, Frochet, H., Collet, C., Balandier, P. (comp.) (2002) Fourth international conference on forest vegetation management : popular summaries. Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique 54 280 Champenoux, France, 230-232.

Thomson, A.J. and Willoughby, I. (2002). A web-based expert system for advising on herbicide use in Great Britain. In, Frochet, H., Collet, C., Balandier, P. (comp.) (2002) Fourth international conference on forest vegetation management : popular summaries. Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique 54 280 Champenoux, France, 237-239.

Dixon, F.L., Clay, D.V., and Willoughby, I. (2002). Susceptibility of woodland plants to herbicide drift (PDF-356K)Quarterly Journal of Forestry, 96 (1), 32-36.

Clay, D.V., Dixon, F.L. and Willoughby, I. (2002). Natural product herbicides for tree establishment. In, Frochet, H., Collet, C., Balandier, P. (comp.) (2002) Fourth international conference on forest vegetation management : popular summaries. Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique 54 280 Champenoux, France, 24-26.

Willoughby, I. (2001). Seeing Red (or Blue) - benefits of dye markers in spraying applications (PDF-1000K). Forestry and British Timber 30 (2), 22-24.

Willoughby, I. and Claridge, J. (2000). Trees and weeds, an update on herbicides (PDF-628K). Forestry and British Timber 29 (2), 30-31.

Dixon, F.L., Clay, D.V. and Willoughby, I. (2000). Herbicide programmes for the control of creeping thistle Cirsium arvense in farm woodland (PDF-1444K). Aspects of Applied Biology 58. Vegetation management in changing landscapes. Association of Applied Biologists, Horticulture Research International, Wellesbourne, Warwick.

Harmer, R., Willoughby, I. and Robertson, M. (2000). Use of herbicides to control weeds and promote the natural regeneration of Fagus sylvatica (PDF-1510K). Aspects of Applied Biology 58. Vegetation management in changing landscapes. Association of Applied Biologists, Horticulture Research International, Wellesbourne, Warwick.

Willoughby, I. (1999). Herbicides in forestry - how are they approved and used? (PDF-1121K) Forestry and British Timber, 28 (2), 27-30.

Willoughby, I. (1999). The control of coppice regrowth in roadside woodlands (PDF-167K). Forestry 72 (4),  305-312.

Willoughby, I (1999). Vegetation management in farm forestry - a comparison of alternative methods of inter-row management (PDF-183K). Forestry 72 (2), 109-121.

Willoughby, I. (1999). Future alternatives to the use of herbicides in British forestry (PDF-83K). Canadian Journal of Forest Research 29 (7), 866-874.

Willoughby, I and Clay, D. (1999). Herbicide update (PDF-1695K). Forestry Commission Technical Paper 28. Forestry Commission, Edinburgh, 49 pp.

Willoughby, I. (1997). Glyphosate rainfastness. Quarterly Journal of Forestry, 91 (3), 203-210.

Willoughby, I. (1997). Using additives with forestry herbicides (PDF-898K). Forestry and British Timber 26 (2), 41-43

Willoughby, I. (1997). Weeding young trees - avoiding trouble (PDF-1091K). Farming and Conservation 3 (3), 27-30.

Willoughby, I and Palmer, C. (1997). Weed control in Christmas tree plantations (PDF-2287K). Forestry Commission Field Book 15. Stationary Office, London, 41pp.

Willoughby, I. (1996). Dormant season application of broad spectrum herbicides in forestry (PDF-1820K). Aspects of Applied Biology 44, Vegetation management in forestry, amenity and conservation areas  : Managing for multiple objectives. Association of Applied Biologists, Horticulture Research International, Wellesbourne, Warwick, 55-62.

Willoughby, I. (1996). Noxious weeds (PDF-2718K). Forestry Commission Research Information Note 274. Forestry Commission, Edinburgh, 8pp.

Willoughby, I. (1996). Herbicide update (PDF-1859K). Forestry Commission Research Information Note 279. Forestry Commission, Edinburgh, 12pp.

Willoughby, I. and Clay, D. (1996). Herbicides for farm woodlands and short rotation coppice. Forestry Commission Field Book 14. HMSO, London, 60pp. Main sections (PDF-3843K)Appendices (PDF-3175K). Please note that these PDF files form an integral whole, and should always be downloaded and read in conjunction with each other.

Willoughby, I., Kerr, G., Jinks, R. and Gosling, P. (1996). Establishing new woodlands by direct sowing (PDF-1420K). Forestry Commission Research Information Note 285. Forestry Commission, Edinburgh, 8pp.

Willoughby, I. (1996). Weed control when establishing new woodlands by direct sowing (PDF-1133K). Forestry Commission Research Information Note 286. Forestry Commission, Edinburgh, 8pp.

Willoughby, I. and Moffat, A. (1996). Cultivation of lowland sites for new woodland establishment (PDF-2346K). Forestry Commission Research Information Note 288. Forestry Commission, Edinburgh, 8pp.

Willoughby, I. (1995). Herbicides in forests and farm woodlands. Forestry and British Timber 24 (2), 23 - 25.

Willoughby, I. (1995). Revised long term off - label arrangements for pesticides. Forestry and British Timber 25 (3), 21 - 22.

Willoughby, I (1995). Farm woodlands research. Forestry Commission Research Division Leaflet. Forestry Commission Research Division, Alice Holt Lodge, Farnham, Surrey, 2pp.

Willoughby, I. and Dewar, J. (1995). The use of herbicides in the forest. Forestry Commission Field Book 8. HMSO, London, 318pp.

McCavish , W.J. and Insley, I. (1992) (revised by Willoughby, I. (1995)). Herbicides for sward control among amenity trees. Arboriculture Research Note 27/95. Arboriculture Advisory and Information Service, Alice Holt Lodge, Farnham, Surrey, 5pp.