Scientific publications on vegetation management

2013

Willoughby, I.H., Ralph Harmer, R., Morgan, G.W., Peace, A. (2013). Triclopyr applied in the winter dormant season can give effective control of bramble (Rubus fruticosus L. agg.) without damaging young tree seedlings or other non-target vegetation.(PDF-1520K) doi: 10.1093/forestry/cps053. Forestry (86): 59-69.

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2012

Stokes, V. (2012). Some biodegradable mulch materials provide effective weed control during establishment of ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.) on farm woodland sites. Quarterly Journal of Forestry, 106 (4): 257-268.

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2011

Willoughby, I.H., Jinks, R.L., Morgan, G.W., Pepper, H., Budd, J. and Mayle, B. (2011). The use of repellents to reduce predation of tree seed by wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus L.) and grey squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis Gmelin). European Journal of Forest Research, 130, 601-611.

McCarthy, N., Bentsen, N.S., Willoughby, I. and Balandier, P. (2011). The state of forest vegetation management in Europe in the 21st century. European Journal of Forest Research 130, 7-16.

Stokes, V.J. and Willoughby, I. (2011). The impact of bracken control on establishment of Corsican pine (Pinus nigra sub sp. laricio (Maire)) and pine weevil (Hylobius abietis (L.)) damage. In: Vegetation 2011, management [held at] Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield, 27-28 April 2011, T Sparks, C Britt, A Cherrill, R Marrs, S Mortimer, R Pywell, I Rotherham, V J Stokes and D Westbury, eds. Aspects of Applied  Biology 108. Association of Applied Biologists, Wellesbourne, Warwick. 217-224.

Stokes, V. and Willoughby, I. (2011). A comparison of cover crops, direct seeding and herbicides in the establishment of ash trees (Fraxinus excelsior (L.) in lowland Britain. Quarterly Journal of Forestry, 105 (1): 19-27.

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2009

Willoughby, I., Stokes, V. and Kerr, G. (2009). Side shelter on lowland sites can benefit early growth of ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.) and sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.). Forestry 82 (2), 199-210.

Willoughby, I., Wilcken, C., Ivey, P., O’Grady, K., and Katto, F. (2009). Forest Stewardship Council guide to integrated pest, disease and weed management in FSC certified forests and plantations (PDF-1290K). FSC Technical Series No. 2009-001.

Willoughby, I. and Jinks, R.L. (2009). The effect of duration of vegetation management on broadleaved woodland creation by direct seeding (PDF-277K). Forestry 82 (3), 343-359.

Willoughby, I., Balandier, P., Bentsen, N.S., McCarthy, N. and Claridge, J. (Eds.) (2009). Forest vegetation management in Europe: current practice and future requirements (PDF-3839K). COST Office, Brussels. pp156.

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2007

Willoughby, I., Stokes, V., Poole, J., White, J.E.J. and Hodge, S.J. (2007). The potential of 44 native and non native species for woodland creation on a range of contrasting sites in lowland Britain (PDF-1311K). Forestry, 80 (5), 531-553.

Willoughby, I., Dixon, F.L., Clay, D.V. and Jinks, R.L. (2007). Tolerance of broadleaved tree and shrub seedlings to preemergence herbicides (PDF-924K). New Forests 34, 1-12.

Harmer, R. and Willoughby, I. (2007). Controlling bramble within an oak woodland using herbicides. Aspects of Applied Biology 82, 165-173.

Stokes, V.J. and Willoughby, I. (2007). Tolerance of trees to foliar acting herbicides. Aspects of Applied Biology 82, 91-101

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2006

Willoughby, I., Clay, D.V. and Dixon, F.L. (2006). The effect of competition from different weed species on the growth of Betula pendula seedlings (PDF-590K). Canadian Journal of Forest Research 36 (8), 1891-1899.

Willoughby, I., Dixon, F.L. and Clay, D.V. (2006). Dormant season vegetation management in broadleaved transplants and direct sown ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.) seedlings (PDF-317K). Forest Ecology and Management 222, 418-426.
Summary

Willoughby, I., Jinks, R.L. and Stokes, V. (2006). The tolerance of newly emerged broadleaved tree seedlings to the herbicides clopyralid, cycloxydim and metazachlor (PDF-824K). Forestry, 79 (4): 599-608.

Dixon, F.L., Clay, D.V., and Willoughby, I. (2006). The efficacy of pre-emergence herbicides on problem weeds in woodland regeneration (PDF-22K). Crop Protection 25 (3), 259-268.
Summary

Clay, D.V., Dixon, F.L. and Willoughby, I. (2006). Weed control in mist-propagated Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.) cuttings (PDF-905K). Quarterly Journal of Forestry, 100 (3) 193-200.

Dixon, F.L., Clay, D.V. and Willoughby, I. (2006). Evaluation of the selectivity of herbicides as potential replacements for atrazine in forestry (PDF-5587K). Scottish Forestry 60 (3), 6-14.

Dixon, F.L., Clay, D.V., and Willoughby, I. (2006). The potential of safeners and protectants to increase tolerance of tree seeds to pre-emergence herbicides (PDF-505K). Quarterly Journal of Forestry, 100 (2) 107-114.

Dixon, F.L., Clay, D.V., and Willoughby, I. (2006). The efficacy of graminicides on grass weed species of forestry (PDF-20K). Crop Protection, 2006 Vol 25 (9), pages 1039-1050.

Jinks, R.L., Willoughby, I. and Baker, C. (2006). Direct seeding of ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.) and sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.): the effects of sowing date, site conditions and pre-emergent herbicides on seedling emergence and survival (PDF-305K). Forest Ecology and Management 237, 373-386.

Little, K., Willoughby, I., Wagner, R.G., Adams, P., Frochot, H., Gava, J., Gous, S., Lautenschlager, R.A., Örlander, G., Sankaran, K.V. and Wei, R.P. (2006). Towards reduced herbice use in forest vegetation management (PDF-279K). Southern African Forestry Journal 207, 63-79.

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2005

Clay, D.V., Dixon, F.L. and Willoughby, I. (2005). Natural products as herbicides for tree establishment (PDF-92K). Forestry 78 (1), 1-9.
Summary and practical implications

Carter, A.D. and Willoughby, I. (2005). Farm woodland management, 40pp. In, Soffe, R.J. (ed.) (2005) The Countryside Notebook. Blackwell Science, Oxford.

Dixon, F.L., Clay, D.V. and Willoughby, I. (2005). An investigation into the relative efficacy of herbicides for the control of Deschampsia flexuosa (L.) Trin. in woodland establishment (PDF-106K). Forestry 78 (3), 229-238.
Summary and practical implications

Dixon, F.L., Clay, D.V. and Willoughby, I. (2005). Tolerance of young trees to applications of clopyralid. Forestry 78 (4).
Summary and practical implications

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2004

Willoughby, I., Jinks, R.L., Gosling, P.G., and Kerr, G. (2004). Creating new broadleaved woodlands by direct seeding (PDF-647K). Forestry Commission Practice Guide, 50pp.

Willoughby, I., Evans, H., Gibbs, J., Pepper, H., Gregory, S., Dewar, J., Pratt, J., McKay, H. (2004). Reducing pesticide use in forestry (PDF-2973K). Forestry Commission Practice Guide, Forestry Commission, Edinburgh, 140pp.

Willoughby, I. (2004). Using colour to protect woodlands (PDF-529K).The Colourist, Issue 1, Spring, p6.

Willoughby, I. (2004). Reducing pesticide use in forestry (PDF-414K). Forestry and British Timber, 33 (2).

Willoughby, I. (2004). Expert help on herbicide selection (PDF-375K). Forestry and British Timber, 33 (2) p30.

Willoughby, I., Jinks, R.L., Kerr, G. and Gosling, P.G. (2004). Factors affecting the success of direct seeding for new woodland creation. Forestry, 77 (5) 467-482.
Summary and practical implications

Stokes, V. (2004). Assessing water use in plants: an introduction and guide to methods of measurement (PDF-2109K). Scottish Forestry, 58 (2), 13-19.

Thomson, A.J. and Willoughby, I. (2004). A web based expert system for advising on herbicide use in Great Britain (PDF-208K). Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, 42 43-49.
Summary and practical implications

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2003

Willoughby, I., Clay, D.V. and Dixon, F.L. (2003). The effect of pre-emergent herbicides on germination and early growth of broadleaved species used for direct seeding (PDF-81K). Forestry 76 (1), 83-94.

Brown, A., Willoughby, I., Clay, D.V., Moore, R and Dixon, F.L. (2003). The use of dye markers as a method of reducing herbicide use and potential environmental impacts (PDF-354K). Forestry, 76 (4) 371-384.

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2002

Willoughby, I., and Clay, D.V. (2002). Natural product herbicides in forestry: what are the prospects? (PDF-756K). Forestry and British Timber 31 (2), 22-25.

Willoughby, I., Clay, D.V. and Moore, R. (2002). The identification of  dye markers to improve targeting and help achieve reductions in herbicide use. In, Frochet, H., Collet, C., Balandier, P. (comp.) (2002) Fourth international conference on forest vegetation management : popular summaries. Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique 54 280 Champenoux, France, 230-232.

Thomson, A.J. and Willoughby, I. (2002). A web-based expert system for advising on herbicide use in Great Britain. In, Frochet, H., Collet, C., Balandier, P. (comp.) (2002) Fourth international conference on forest vegetation management : popular summaries. Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique 54 280 Champenoux, France, 237-239.

Dixon, F.L., Clay, D.V., and Willoughby, I. (2002). Susceptibility of woodland plants to herbicide drift (PDF-356K). Quarterly Journal of Forestry, 96 (1), 32-36.

Clay, D.V., Dixon, F.L. and Willoughby, I. (2002). Natural product herbicides for tree establishment. In, Frochet, H., Collet, C., Balandier, P. (comp.) (2002) Fourth international conference on forest vegetation management : popular summaries. Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique 54 280 Champenoux, France, 24-26.

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2001

Willoughby, I. (2001). Seeing Red (or Blue) - benefits of dye markers in spraying applications (PDF-1000K). Forestry and British Timber 30 (2), 22-24.

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2000

Willoughby, I. and Claridge, J. (2000). Trees and weeds, an update on herbicides (PDF-628K). Forestry and British Timber 29 (2), 30-31.

Dixon, F.L., Clay, D.V. and Willoughby, I. (2000). Herbicide programmes for the control of creeping thistle Cirsium arvense in farm woodland (PDF-1444K). Aspects of Applied Biology 58. Vegetation management in changing landscapes. Association of Applied Biologists, Horticulture Research International, Wellesbourne, Warwick.

Harmer, R., Willoughby, I. and Robertson, M. (2000). Use of herbicides to control weeds and promote the natural regeneration of Fagus sylvatica (PDF-1542K). Aspects of Applied Biology 58. Vegetation management in changing landscapes. Association of Applied Biologists, Horticulture Research International, Wellesbourne, Warwick.

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1999

Willoughby, I. (1999). Herbicides in forestry - how are they approved and used? (PDF-1121K). Forestry and British Timber, 28 (2), 27-30.

Willoughby, I. (1999). The control of coppice regrowth in roadside woodlands (External PDF-167K). Forestry 72 (4),  305-312.

Willoughby, I (1999). Vegetation management in farm forestry - a comparison of alternative methods of inter-row management (External PDF-183K). Forestry 72 (2), 109-121.

Willoughby, I. (1999). Future alternatives to the use of herbicides in British forestry (PDF-83K). Canadian Journal of Forest Research 29 (7), 866-874.

Willoughby, I and Clay, D. (1999). Herbicide update (PDF-1695K). Forestry Commission Technical Paper 28. Forestry Commission, Edinburgh, 49 pp.

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1997

Willoughby, I. (1997). Glyphosate rainfastness. Quarterly Journal of Forestry, 91 (3), 203-210.

Willoughby, I. (1997). Using additives with forestry herbicides (PDF-898K). Forestry and British Timber 26 (2), 41-43

Willoughby, I. (1997). Weeding young trees - avoiding trouble (PDF-1091K). Farming and Conservation 3 (3), 27-30.

Willoughby, I and Palmer, C. (1997). Weed control in Christmas tree plantations (PDF-2287K). Forestry Commission Field Book 15. Stationary Office, London, 41pp.

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1996

Willoughby, I. (1996). Dormant season application of broad spectrum herbicides in forestry (PDF-1820K). Aspects of Applied Biology 44, Vegetation management in forestry, amenity and conservation areas  : Managing for multiple objectives. Association of Applied Biologists, Horticulture Research International, Wellesbourne, Warwick, 55-62.

Willoughby, I. (1996). Noxious weeds (PDF-2718K). Forestry Commission Research Information Note 274. Forestry Commission, Edinburgh, 8pp.

Willoughby, I. (1996). Herbicide update (PDF-1859K). Forestry Commission Research Information Note 279. Forestry Commission, Edinburgh, 12pp.

Willoughby, I. and Clay, D. (1996). Herbicides for farm woodlands and short rotation coppice. Forestry Commission Field Book 14. HMSO, London, 60pp.
Herbicides for farm woodlands and short rotation coppice - main sections (PDF-3843K),
Herbicides for farm woodlands and short rotation coppice - appendices (PDF-3175K).
Please note that these PDF files form an integral whole, and should always be downloaded and read in conjunction with each other.

Willoughby, I., Kerr, G., Jinks, R. and Gosling, P. (1996). Establishing new woodlands by direct sowing (PDF-1420K). Forestry Commission Research Information Note 285. Forestry Commission, Edinburgh, 8pp.

Willoughby, I. (1996). Weed control when establishing new woodlands by direct sowing (PDF-1133K). Forestry Commission Research Information Note 286. Forestry Commission, Edinburgh, 8pp.

Willoughby, I. and Moffat, A. (1996). Cultivation of lowland sites for new woodland establishment (PDF-2346K). Forestry Commission Research Information Note 288. Forestry Commission, Edinburgh, 8pp.

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1995

Willoughby, I. (1995). Herbicides in forests and farm woodlands. Forestry and British Timber 24 (2), 23 - 25.

Willoughby, I. (1995). Revised long term off - label arrangements for pesticides. Forestry and British Timber 25 (3), 21 - 22.

Willoughby, I (1995). Farm woodlands research. Forestry Commission Research Division Leaflet. Forestry Commission Research Division, Alice Holt Lodge, Farnham, Surrey, 2pp.

Willoughby, I. and Dewar, J. (1995). The use of herbicides in the forest. Forestry Commission Field Book 8. HMSO, London, 318pp.

McCavish , W.J. and Insley, I. (1992) (revised by Willoughby, I. (1995)). Herbicides for sward control among amenity trees. Arboriculture Research Note 27/95. Arboriculture Advisory and Information Service, Alice Holt Lodge, Farnham, Surrey, 5pp.

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