Glossary - E

Ecological succession
Stages of natural vegetation cover, from bare land to climax vegetation.
Ecosystem
All plant and animal life living in a particular habitat and, to at least some extent, dependent upon each other.
Ecosystem services
As defined by the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, ecosystem services are “the benefits people obtain from ecosystems. These include provisioning services such as food and water; regulating services such as regulation of floods, drought, land degradation, and disease; supporting services such as soil formation and nutrient cycling; and cultural services such as recreational, spiritual, religious, and other nonmaterial benefits.”
Enrichment
Addition of a few young trees by planting to an area already established but not fully stocked. Differs from beating up because it is done after establishment.
Entire
Term describing a simple leaf without lobes, teeth or other indentations in margin.
Epicormics
Twigs sprouting directly out of the main stem.
Establishment
The first five to ten years or formative period that ends once young trees are of sufficient size that, given adequate protection, they are likely to survive at the required stocking. The stage in the growth of a young plantation when it no longer needs beating up or weeding.
Evergreen
Tree or shrub that retains its leaves all year and for several years.
Exotic
Tree introduced from overseas.
Extraction
Removal of felled timber to forest roadside.