Glossary - C

Cable crane
A method of extracting timber over rough and/or steep ground using a system of pulleys and line wires. The tractor, which provides the power for the system, remains on the forest road. See also Highlead and Skyline.
Cambium
Layer of living cells just under bark and at growing tips of shoots and roots, from which new growth develops.
Canker
Disease-damaged area of a tree usually caused by fungus or bacteria.
Canopy
The foliage and small branches of tall trees in a wood when these have interlaced to form continuous cover.
Catkin
Male or female flowers hanging in chains: they lack coloured petals because they are wind-pollinated flowers.
Check
Term used to describe trees growing very slowly or not at all. Usually caused by poor drainage or nutrient deficiency.
Chipwood
See Pulpwood.
Chlorophyll
Chemicals in the green parts of plants required for the formation of food. See Photosynthesis.
Cleaning
Removing unwanted tree and shrub growth.
Climax vegetation
Term used in connection with ecological succession, in this case the point when stable vegetation cover is reached, e.g. forest.
Clinometer
An instrument used for measuring slopes. Can be used from the ground to measure the heights of trees.
Clone
Identical series of plants arising from a single parent by artificial or natural vegetative propagation.
Compartment
A unit within the forest, demarcated (for administrative purposes) by permanent features e.g. roads and streams.
Compound
Term describing leaf that consists of several leaflets, e.g. ash leaf.
Cone scale
Woody structure arising from cone axis, enclosing developing seeds.
Conifer
Tree on which the seeds are borne in a cone.
Conversion
Cutting up of tree into desired lengths. The merchant who purchases the timber will usually dictate the lengths of timber they will need according to their market.
Conversion loss
The difference in volume between that of the standing tree and the volume of the products cut from it. Expressed as a percentage of the standing volume. Normal range 8 to 20 per cent.
Coppicing
Cutting of woody stem at ground level to encourage growth of several stems from one root system.
Copse
A very small, broad-leaved woodland originally derived from coppicing but now the term is used more widely.
Coupe
Area clear-felled within mature woodland and which will be regenerated.
Crown
Branches and upper part of the stem of tree.
Cultivar
Variations of a species arising in cultivation and propagated for some unusual characteristic, such as leaf colour or shape.
Current annual increment (C.A.I.)
Volume increment of a stand in one year, or averaged over a short period of years, measured in cubic metres per hectare.