Glossary - B

Bark
Protective layer on the outside of stems and branches, consisting of living cork cells on the inside and dead cells on the outside.
Bars
See Pallet wood.
Beating up
Replacing trees that have died shortly after planting.
Billets
Pieces of small diameter round timber cut to length.
Blaze
The mark made by an axe slicing off bark from a tree, normally done to indicate the tree is to be felled. Also the act of marking.
Blueing stumps
See Dyeing stumps.
Bole
Main part of the stem of a tree before it separates into branches.
Boreal region
Region of forest areas of the northern North Temperate Zone: dominated by coniferous trees such as spruce, fir and pine.
Brashing
Removal of the lower dead branches, up to about two metres, of trees in a stand.
Breast height
1.3 metres (43 inches) above the ground on the highest side. Point at which diameter or girth is measured on a standing tree.
Broad-leaves
Term used to describe trees other than conifers. Broadleaves may be deciduous e.g. oak, or evergreen e.g. holly.
Bud scale
Scale that covers and protects a developing leaf or flower.
Burr
Excrescence on base of tree. Some broad-leaved trees with a burr can be very valuable – much sought after by craftspeople and carpenters.
Butt
Lower part of the stem of a tree.
Butt rot
The most serious, commonplace disease in British forestry. Fungal infection of the roots and lower stem of the living tree degrading the most valuable part of the tree. Heterobasidion annosum (formerly Fomes annosus) is the most important cause of butt rot. See also Dyeing stumps.