Further reading

Achim, A. and Nicoll, B.C. (2009). Modelling the anchorage of shallow-rooted trees. Forestry 82: 273–284.

Albrecht, A., Hanewinkel, M., Bauhus, J. and Kohnle, U. (2012). How does silviculture affect storm damage in forests of south-western Germany? Results from empirical modeling based on longterm observations. European Journal of Forest Research 131: 229–247.

Anon (2006). Forest mensuration: a handbook for practitioners. Forestry Commission

Belcher, S.E., Harman, I.N. and Finnigan, J.J. (2012). TheWind in the Willows: Flows in Forest Canopies in Complex Terrain. Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics 44: 479–504

Björheden, R. (2007). Possible effects of the Hurricane Gudrun on the regional Swedish forest energy supply. Biomass and Bioenergy 31: 617–622.

Blennow, K. and Olofsson, E. (2008). The probability of wind damage in forestry under a changed wind climate. Climatic Change 87: 347–360.

Blennow, K., Andersson, M., Bergh, J., Sallnäs, O. and Olofsson, E. (2010). Potential climate change impacts on the probability of wind damage in a south Swedish forest. Climatic Change 99:261–278.

Blennow, K., Persson, J., Wallin, A., Vareman, N. and Persson, E. (2014). Understanding risk in forest ecosystem services: implications for effective risk management, communication and planning. Forestry 87: 219–228.

Cook, N.J. (1985). The designer's guide to wind loading of building structures.  Part 1: Background, damage survey, wind data and structural classification.  Butterworths, London pp 371.

Coutts, M.P. (1986). Components of tree stability in Sitka spruce on peaty gley soil.  Forestry 59: 173-197.

Coutts, M. P. and Grace, J. (Eds). (1994). Wind and wind-related damage to trees. Cambridge University Press.

de Langre, E. (2008). Effects of wind on plants. Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics 40: 141–68

Dhote, J-F. (2005). Implication of forest diversity in resistance to strong winds. In: M. Scherer-Lorenzen, C. Korner, and E-D. Schulze (eds.) Forest Diversity and Function: Temperate and Boreal systems. Springer. Pp. 291–307.

Dobbertin, M. (2002). Influence of stand structure and site factors on wind damage comparing the storms Vivian and Lothar. Forest, Snow and Landscape Research 77:187–205

Drouineau S., Laroussinie O., Birot Y., Terrasson D., Formery T. and Roman-Amat B. (2001). Joint evaluation of storms, forests vulnerability and their restoration. EFI Discussion Paper 9. European Forest Institute. 39 p.

Edwards, P.N. and Christie, J.M. (1981). Yield models for Forest Management.  Forestry Commission Booklet 48. Forestry Commission, Farnham.

Fraser, A. I. and Gardiner, J. B. H. (1967). Rooting and stability in Sitka spruce.  Forestry Commission Bulletin. 40, HMSO, London.

Gardiner, B.A., Stacey, G.R., Belcher, R.E. and Wood, C.J.  (1997). Field and wind-tunnel assessments of the implications of respacing and thinning on tree stability. Forestry 70: 233-252.

Gardiner, B., Peltola, H. and Kellomäki, S. (2000). Comparison of two models for predicting the critical wind speeds required to damage coniferous trees. Ecological Modelling 129: 1–23.

Gardiner, B.A. and Quine, C.P. (2000). Management of forests to reduce the risk of abiotic damage – a review with particular reference to the effects of strong winds. Forest Ecology and Management 135: 261–277.

Gardiner, B.A., Marshall, B., Achim, A., Belcher, R. and Wood, C. (2005). The stability of different silvicultural systems: a wind tunnel investigation. Forestry 78: 471–484.

Gardiner, B., Byrne, K., Hale, S., Kamimura, K., Mitchell, S.J., Peltola, H., Ruel, J-C. (2008). A review of mechanistic modelling of wind damage risk to forests. Forestry 81: 447-463.

Gardiner, B., Blennow, K., Carnus, J-M., Fleischer, M., Ingemarson, F., Landmann, G., Lindner, M., Marzano, M., Nicoll, B., Orazio, C., Peyron, J-L., Reviron, M-P., Schelhaas, M-J., Schuck, A., Spielmann, M. and Usbeck, T. (2010). Destructive storms in European forests: past and forthcoming impacts. Final report to DG Environment (07.0307/2009/SI2.540092/ETU/B.1). http://ec.europa.eu/environment/forests/fprotection.htm

Gardiner, B., Schuck, A., Schelhaas, M-J., Orazio, C., Blennow, K. and Nicoll, B. (eds). (2013). Living with Storm Damage to Forests: What Science Can Tell Us 3. European Forest Institute. http://www.efi.int/portal/virtual_library/publications/what_science_can_tell_us/3/

Hale, S.E., Gardiner, B.A., Wellpott, A., Nicoll, B.C. and Achim, A. (2012). Wind loading of trees: influence of tree size and competition. European Journal of Forest Research 131: 203-217..

Hale, S.E., Gardiner B., Peace, A., Nicoll, B., Taylor, P. and Pizzirani, S., 2015. Comparison and validation of three versions of a forest wind risk model. Environmental Modelling and Software 68, 27-41.

Hanewinkel, M., Hummel, S. and Albrecht, A. (2011). Assessing natural hazards in forestry for risk management: a review. European Journal of Forest Research 130: 329–351.

Jactel, H., Nicoll, B.C., Branco, M., Gonzalez-Olabarria, J.R., Grodzki, W., Långström, B., Moreira, F., Netherer, S., Orazio, C., Piou, D., Santos, H., Schelhaas, M.J., Tojic, K. and Vodde, F. (2009). The influences of forest stand management on biotic and abiotic risks of damage. Annals of Forest Science 66:71.

Kennedy, F. (2002). The identification of soils for forest management. Forestry Commission Field Guide

Lavers, G.M., (1969). The strength properties of timbers, For. Prod. Res. Lab. Bull. 50 (2nd edition), HMSO, London.

Levy, P.E., Hale, S.E. and Nicoll, B.C. (2004). Biomass expansion factors and root:shoot ratios for coniferous tree species in Great Britain. Forestry 77: 421-430.

Lindroth, A., Lagergren, F., Grelle, A., Klemedtsson, L., Langvall, O., Weslien, P. and Tuulik, J. (2009). Storms can cause Europe-wide reduction in forest carbon sink. Global Change Biology 15: 346–355.

Mason, W. L. and Quine, C. P. (1995). Silvicultural possibilities for increasing structural diversity in British spruce forests: the case of Kielder forest. Forest Ecology and Management 79:13–28.

Mason, W.L. (2002). Are irregular stands more windfirm? Forestry 75: 347–355.

Mayhead, G.J. (1973). Some drag coefficients for British forest tree derived from wind tunnel studies. Agricultural Meteorology 12: 123-130.

Miller, K. F. (1985). Windthrow Hazard Classification.  Forestry Commission Leaflet 85, HMSO, London.

Neild, S.A. and Wood, C.J. (1999). Estimating stem and root-anchorage flexibility in trees. Tree Physiology 19: 141-151.

Nicoll, B.C. and Ray, D. (1996). Adaptive growth of tree root systems in response to wind action and site conditions. Tree Physiology 16: 891-898.

Nicoll, B.C., Gardiner, B.A., Rayner, B. and Peace, A.J. (2006). Anchorage of coniferous trees in relation to species, soil type and rooting depth. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 36: 1871-1883.

Nicoll, B.C., Gardiner, B.A. and Peace, A.J. (2008). Improvements in anchorage provided by the acclimation of forest trees to wind stress. Forestry 81: 389-398.

Peltola, H., Gardiner, B.A., Kellomäki, S., Kolström, T., Lässig, R., Moore, J. and Quine, C.P. and Ruel, J-C (Eds). (2000). Wind and other Abiotic Risks to Forests. Forest Ecology and Management, Special Issue.

Petty, J.A. and Swain, C. (1985). Factors influencing stem breakage of conifers in high winds.  Forestry 58: 75-84.

Pukkala, T. and Kangas, J. (1996). A method for integrating risk and attitudes towards risk in forest planning. Forest Science 42:198–205.

Quine, C.P. (2000). Estimation of mean wind climate and probability of strong winds for wind risk assessment. Forestry 73: 247-258.

Quine, C.P. and Miller, K.F. (1991). Windthrow - a factor influencing the choice of silvicultural systems.  In: Silvicultural Systems, Ed: P. Gordon, ICF, Edinburgh, pp 71-81.

Quine, C.P. and Gardiner, B.A. (1992). Incorporating the threat of windthrow into forest design plans.  Research Information Note 220. Forestry Commission Research Division, Farnham.

Quine, C.P. and White, I.M.S. (1993). Revised windiness scores for the Windthrow Hazard Classification.  Forestry Commission Research Information Note 230, FC, Edinburgh.

Quine, C.P., Coutts, M., Gardiner, B. and Pyatt, G. (1995). Forest and Wind: Management to Minimise Damage. Forestry Commission Bullettin 114, HMSO, London.

Quine, C.P and Bell, P.D. (1998). Monitoring of windthrow occurrence and progression in spruce forests in Britain. Forestry 71: 87–97.

Quine, C.P. and Gardiner, B.A. (2007). Understanding how the interaction of wind and trees results in windthrow, stem breakage and canopy gap formation. In Johnson, E. and Miyanishi, K. (Eds) Plant disturbance ecology: the process and the response. Academic Press. 698p. Burlington, MA, USA.

Raupach, M.R. (1994). Simplified expressions for vegetation roughness length and zero-plane displacement as functions of canopy height and area index. Boundary-Layer Meteorology 71: 211-216.

Raupach, M.R., Finnigan, J.J., and Brunet, Y. (1996). Coherent eddies and turbulence in vegetation canopies: the mixing layer analogy. Boundary-Layer Meteorology 78: 351–382.

Ray, D., White, I.M.S. and Pyatt, D.G. (1992). The effect of ditches, slope and peat thickness on the water regime of a forested gley soil.  Soil Use and Management 8: 105-111.

Ray, D. and Nicoll, B.C. (1998). The effect of soil water-table depth on root-plate development and stability of Sitka spruce. Forestry 71: 169-182.

Rudnicki, M., Mitchell, S.J. and Novak, M.D. (2004). Wind tunnel measurements of crown streamlining and drag relationships for three conifer species. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 34: 666-676.

Ruel, J.-C., Achim, A., Espinoza, R.H., Cloutier, A. and Brossier, B. (2010). Wood Degradation after Windthrow in a Northern Environment. Forest Products Journal 60: 200-206.

Savill, P.S. (1983). Silviculture in windy climates.  Forestry Abstracts 44: 473-488.

Schelhaas, M.J., Nabuurs, G.-J. and Schuck, A. (2003). Natural disturbances in the European forests in the 19th and 20th centuries. Global Change Biology 9: 1620–1633.

Schelhaas, M.-J., Hengeveld, G., Moriondo, M., Reinds, G.J., Kundzewicz, Z.W., Maat, H.t., and Bindi, M. (2010). Assessing risk and adaptation options to fires and windstorms in European forestry. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 15: 681–701.

Seidl, R. and Blennow, K. (2012). Pervasive growth reduction in Norway spruce forests following wind disturbance. PLoS ONE 7:1–8. http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0033301.

Somerville, A. (1980). Wind stability: forest layout and silviculture.  New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science 10: 476-501.

Suárez, J.C., Gardiner, B.A. and Quine, C.P. (1999). A comparison of three methods for predicting wind speeds in complex forest terrain. Meteorological Applications 6: 1-14.

Telewski, F.W. and Beals, W.J. (1995). Wind induced physiological and developmental responses in trees.  In:  Wind and wind related damage to trees. (Ed) Coutts and Grace. Cambridge University Press, 485 pp

Thom, A.S. (1971). Momentum absorption by vegetation. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteteorological Society 97: 414-428.

Troen, I. and Petersen, E.L. (1989). European Wind Atlas. Risø National Laboratory, Denmark.

Usbeck, T., Wohlgemuth, T., Dobbertin, M., Pfister, C., Bürgi, A. and Rebetez, M. (2010). Increasing storm damage to forests in Switzerland from 1858 to 2007. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 150: 47–55.

Valinger, E. and Fridman, J. (2011). Factors affecting the probability of windthrow at stand level as a result of Gudrun winter storm in southern Sweden. Forest Ecology and Management 262:398–403.

Vollsinger, S., Mitchell, S.J., Byrne, K.E., Novak, M.D. and Rudnicki, M. (2005). Wind tunnel measurements of crown streamlining and drag relationships for several hardwood species. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 35: 1238-1249.