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Barry Gardiner, BSc, Phd, FRMetS

Emeritus Silviculturist (Research Fellow)

Barry Gardiner

Email:barry.gardiner@forestry.gsi.gov.uk; barry.gardiner@bordeaux.inra.fr

Tel: +33 5571 22424
Fax: +33 5571 22420
Mobile (France): +33 6451 10395
Mobile (UK): +44 (0)7810 180150

Address:
INRA - Unité EPHYSE
71, Avenue Edouard Bourlaux
B.P. 81
33140 Villenave d'Ornon
France

Barry graduated from Durham University in 1976 with a BSc (Hons) in Physics. He then worked for 2½ years with the British Antarctic Survey as a meteorologist/physicist making synoptic and upper air meteorological measurements along with measurements of ozone and solar radiation. Barry then completed a PhD at the University of Manchester investigating the development of clouds and fogs in Britain, Germany and the United States. Following his PhD he accepted a position at the Desert Research Institute in Reno, Nevada to investigate thunderstorm electrification. After 2 years he became Director of the Precipitation Physics and Chemistry Laboratory with responsibility for a number of large scale programmes investigating winter storm systems in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California.

In 1987 he joined the Forestry Commission with particular responsibility for investigating wind damage to trees and airflow in complex terrain. Full scale experiments have been carried out to measure turbulence and wind loading in forest canopies and complementary experiments have been conducted in a wind tunnel using 1:75 scale model trees. At a larger scale a number of field campaigns have been conducted to determine the effect of topography on wind speeds in complex terrain. Other work investigated the microclimatology of agroforests and shelterbelts, the development of turbulence over forest edges and the adaptive growth of trees in response to the wind. These data have been used to develop and test computer models of tree mechanical behaviour and airflow over forests.. These models form the basis for an integrated computer based model (ForestGALES), which is able to predict the risk of wind damage for forests in complex terrain.

Since 1997 Barry has been involved in the measurement and prediction of the quality of timber in coniferous trees growing in Britain. A primary interest has been the development of Sitka spruce and Scots pine timber properties models based on the growth predictions of models developed by the Forest Research. Such models are designed to predict the wood properties of importance for the wood processing industries (e.g. wood density, knot size and status, grain angle, microfibril angle, stiffness, fibre length, fibre width, etc.). Other work involves investigating the influence of climate change on wood properties, the impact of conversion to Continuous Cover Forestry (CCF) on timber quality and supply, and developing indicative measures to aid the management of Scots pine and Sitka spruce forests. This work is carried out in collaboration with colleagues at BRE, SIRT (Edinburgh Napier University and University of Glasgow), University of Aberdeen, INRA (France) and Inventia (Sweden).

Barry also continues to be actively involved in the development of the wind damage risk model ForestGALES. In particular he is working closely with other colleagues to extend the model to cover alternative silvicultural systems and to adapt the system for use in other parts of the world (Canada, New Zealand, Japan, Denmark, Sweden, USA and France).

Current role

Emeritus Silviculturist

From December 2011 Barry has been employed as a senior scientist at INRA-Bordeaux as part of a 4 year programme of work to develop landscape level methods for minimising wind damage risk to forests. This work is in collaboration with colleagues in Forest Research and in CSIRO, Australia.

Affiliations and achievements

  • Fellow of the Royal Meterorological Society
  • Member of the American Meteorological Society
  • Member of the American Geophysical Union
  • Visiting Professor in the Institute for Atmospheric Sciences, Leeds University
  • Honorary Fellow, College of Science and Engineering, University of Edinburgh
  • Honorary Fellow, Dept. of Chemistry, Glasgow University

Main recent publications

Jones, M. Aptaker, P.S., Cox, J., Gardiner, B.A., and McDonald, P.J. (2012). A portable NMR imaging system for in-situ measurements of living trees: The Tree Hugger. Submitted to Journal of Magnetic Resonance.

Auty, A., Weiskittel, A. R., Achim, A., Moore, J. R., and Gardiner, B. A. (2011). Influence of early re-spacing on Sitka spruce branch structure. Annals of Forest Science. In Press. DOI 10.1007/s13595-011-0141-8.

Fonweban, J. and Gardiner, B. (2011). Variable-Top Merchantable Volume Equations for Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.) in Northern Britain. Forestry. In Press.

Jactel, H., Branco, M., Duncker, P., Gardiner, B., Grodzki, W., Långström, B., Moreira, F., Netherer, S., Nicoll, B. Orazio, C. Piou, D., Schelhaas, M-J., Tojic, K. (2011). A multi-criteria risk analysis to evaluate impacts of forest management alternatives on forest health in Europe. Ecology and Society. In Press.

Fonweban, J., Gardiner, B., Macdonald, E., and Auty, D. (2011). Taper functions for Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.) in Northern Britain. Forestry. 84(1): 49-60 doi:10.1093/forestry/cpq043.

Gardiner, B., Blennow, K., Carnus, J-M, Fleischer, P., Ingemarson, F., Landmann, G., Lindner, M., Marzano, M., Nicoll, B., Orazio, C., Peyron, J-L., Reviron, M-P., Schelhaas, M-J., Schuck, A., Spielmann, M., and Usbeck, T. (2010). Destructive Storms in European Forests: Past and Forthcoming Impacts. Final Report to EC DG Environment. http://ec.europa.eu/environment/forests/fprotection.htm

Gardiner, B., Leban, J-M., Auty, D., and Simpson, H. (2011). Models for Predicting the Wood Density of British Grown Sitka spruce. Forestry 84(2): 119-132. doi:10.1093/forestry/cpq050.

Hale. S. A., Gardiner, B. A., Welpott, A., Nicoll, B. and Achim, A. (2011). Wind loading of trees: influence of tree size and competition. Euro. J. For. Res.. 131(1): 203-217. DOI 10.1007/s10342-010-0448-2.

Macdonald, E., Connolly, T., and Gardiner, B. (2010). A survey of Scots pine timber quality in the Northern Periphery Programme area of Scotland. In J. Kúdela & R. Lagaňa (eds) Wood Structure and Properties ´10 13, pp. 13−20 © 2010, Arbora Publishers, Zvolen, Slovakia. ISBN 978−80−968868−5−2.

Gardiner, B., Leban, J-M., Auty, D., and Simpson, H. (2010). Models for Predicting the Wood Density of British Grown Sitka spruce. Submitted to Forestry.

Jactel, H., Branco, M., Duncker, P., Gardiner, B., Grodzki, W., Långström, B., Moreira, F., Netherer, S., Nicoll, B. Orazio, C. Piou, D., Schelhaas, M-J., Tojic, K. (2010). A multi-criteria risk analysis to evaluate impacts of forest management alternatives on forest health in Europe. Ecology and Society. In Press.

Fonweban, J., Gardiner, B., Macdonald, E., and Auty, D. (2010). Taper functions for Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.) in Northern Britain. Forestry. In Press.

Hale. S. A., Gardiner, B. A., Welpott, A., Nicoll, B. and Achim, A. (2010). Wind loading of trees: influence of tree size and competition. Euro. J. For. Res. In Press.

Pizzirani, S., Gardiner, B., and Edwards, D. (2010).  Analysing forest sustainability under various climate change scenarios: a case study in northern Scotland. Proceedings 18th Commonwealth Forestry Conference, Edinburgh, June 2010.

Macdonald, E., Gardiner, B. A. and Mason, W. (2010). A review of the effects of transformation of even-aged stands to continuous cover silvicultural systems on conifer log quality and wood properties in the UK. Forestry, 64(1), 1-16, doi:10.1093/forestry/cpp023.

Cox, J., McDonald, P. J., and Gardiner, B. A. (2010). A 2D NMR Relaxation Correlation and Exchange Study of Water in Wood. Holzforshung, 64, 259-266, doi: 10:1515/HF.2010.036.

Macdonald, E., Moore, J., Connolly, T. and Gardiner, B. (2009) Developing Methods for Assessing Scots Pine Timber Quality (PDF-331K). Forestry Commission Research Note 5, Forestry Commission, Edinburgh.

Moore, J., Gardiner, B., Ridley-Ellis, D., Jarvis, M., Mochan, S. and Macdonald, E. (2009). Getting the most out of the United Kingdom’s timber resource. Scottish Forestry, 63, 3-8.

Moore, J., Achim, A., Lyon, A., Mochan, S. and Gardiner, B. (2009). Effects of early re-spacing on the physical and mechanical properties of Sitka spruce structural timber. Forest Ecology and Management, 258(7), 1174-1180, doi:10.1016

Moore, J.R., Mochan, S., Brüchert, F., Hapca, A.I., Ridley-Ellis, D.J., Gardiner, B.A., and Lee, S.J. (2009). A comparison of four different Sitka spruce genotypes growing in the United Kingdom. Bending strength and stiffness of structural timber. Forestry, doi:10.1093/forestry/cpp018

Nicoll. B., Crossley, A., Mochan, S and Gardiner, B. (2009). The effects of spacing on root anchorage and tree stability. Scottish Forestry.

Mochan, S., Lee, S and Gardiner, B (2008). Benefits of improved Sitka spruce: volume and quality of timber (PDF-534K). Forestry Commission Research Note 3, Forestry Commission, Edinburgh.

Gardiner, B., Byrne, K., Hale, S., Kamimura, K., Mitchell, S.J., Peltola, H., Ruel, J-C. (2008). A Review of Mechanistic Modelling of Wind Damage Risk to Forests. Forestry, 81 (3), 447-463.

Nicoll, B.C., Gardiner, B.A., and Peace, A. J. (2008). Improvements in anchorage provided by the acclimation of forest trees to wind stress. Forestry, 81 (3), 389-398.

Kamimura, K., Gardiner, B.A., Kato, A., Shiraishi, N. and Hiroshima, T. (2008). Developing a decision-support approach to reducing wind damage risk – a case study on sugi (Cryptomeria japonica (L.f.) D.Don) forests in Japan. Forestry, 81 (3), 429-445.

Suárez, J., García, J., Gardiner, B., and Patenaude, G. (2008). The estimation of wind risk in forests stands using airborne Laser scanning, Journal of Forest Planning, 13, 165-185.

Kamimura, K., Gardiner, B.A., Shiraishi, N., (2007). Estimating long-term critical wind speed for wind damage by using mechanistic wind risk model, GALES. In: Yoshimoto, A., Hiroshima, T., Kondoh, H. (Eds.), FORMATH Vol.6. Japan Society of Forest Planning Press, Utsunomiya, Japan, pp. 19-28.

Quine, C. P. and Gardiner, B. A. (2007). Understanding how the interaction of wind and trees results in windthrow, stem breakage and canopy gap formation. In Johnson, E. (Ed) Plant disturbance ecology: the process and the response. Academic Press.

Wellpott, A. and Gardiner, B. (2006). Wind loading on trees in a mature Sitka spruce forest. 5th Plant Biomechanics Conference – Stockholm, August 28 – September 1 2006.

Nicoll, B. C. and Gardiner, B. A. (2006). The effects of increased wind action on the radial growth of tree stems and structural roots. 5th Plant Biomechanics Conference – Stockholm, August 28 – September 1 2006.

De Ioanni, M. and Gardiner, B. (2006). Modelling the Mechanics of Oak Trees Growing on Slopes. 5th Plant Biomechanics Conference – Stockholm, August 28 – September 1 2006.

Brüchert, F. and Gardiner, B. (2006). The effect of wind exposure on the tree aerial architecture and biomechanics of Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis Bong.). American Journal of Botany. 93, 1512-1521.

Nicoll, B. C., Gardiner, B. A., Rayner, B. and Peace, A. J. (2006). Anchorage of coniferous trees in relation to species, soil type and rooting depth. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 36, 1871-1883.

Achim, A., Gardiner, B., Leban, J-M and Daquitaine, R. (2006). Predicting the branching properties of Sitka spruce grown in Great Britain. New Zealand Journal of Forest Science. 36(2/3): 246–264

Gardiner, B. A., Palmer, H. and Hislop, M. (2006). The Principles of using Woods for Shelter. Information Note 150, Forestry Commission, Edinburgh.

Moore, J. R., Gardiner, B.A., Blackburn, G. R. A., Brickman, A., and Maguire, D. A. (2005). An inexpensive instrument to measure the dynamic response of standing trees to wind loading. Ag. and Forest Met.. 132 (2005) 78–83.

Achim, A., Ruel, J-C., and Gardiner, B. A. (2005). Evaluating the effect of precommercial thinning on the resistance of balsam fir to windthrow. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 35(8): 1844-1853.

Nicoll, B. C., Achim, A., Mochan, S., and Gardiner, B. A. (2005). Does steep terrain influence tree stability? A field investigation. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 35(10): 2360-2367.

Cucchi, V., Meredieu, C., Stokes, A., de Coligny, F., Suárez, J., and Gardiner, B. (2005). Modelling the windthrow risk for simulated forest stands of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.). Forest Ecology and Management. 213, 184-196.

Achim, A., Ruel, J-C., Gardiner, B. A., Laflamme, G. and Meunier , S. (2005). Modelling the vulnerability of balsam fir and white spruce to windthrow on different soils. Forest Ecology and Management. 204, 35-50.

Gardiner, B. A., Achim, A., Marshall, B. J., Belcher, R. E. and Wood, C. J. (2005). The stability of different silvicultural systems: a wind tunnel investigation. Forestry. 78: 471-484.

Gartner, B. L., Moore, J. R. and Gardiner, B. A. (2004). Theoretical effects of the gas in wood on tree mechanics and physiology. Tree Physiology, 24, 1239–1250.

Gardiner, B. (2004). Windbreaks and Shelterbelts. In Encyclopedia of Forest Sciences. Burley, J., Evans, J. and Youngquist, J. A. (eds.). Elsevier, Oxford.

Hale, S. E., Levy, P. E. and Gardiner, B. A. (2004). Trade-offs between seedling growth, thinning and stability in Sitka spruce stands and the implications for alternative silvicultural systems: a modelling analysis. Forest Ecology and Management, 187, 105-115.

Achim, A., Nicoll, B., Mochan, S., Gardiner, B. (2003). Wind stability of trees on slopes. In: Ruck, B., Kottmeier, C., Mattheck, C., Quine, C., Wilhelm, G. (Ed.), International Conference ‘Wind Effects on Trees’ Germany.

Morse, A. P., Y. Brunet, Y., Devalance, M., Gamboa-Marrufo, M., Irvine, M. R., Marshall, B. J., Paw U, K. T., Shaw, R. H., Wood, C., Yang, B. and Gardiner, B. A. (2003). The VENFOR project: the role of forest edges in the patterns of turbulence development – findings from a field experiment, wind tunnel experiment and a large eddy simulation model experiment.In: Ruck, B., Kottmeier, C., Mattheck, C., Quine, C., Wilhelm, G. (Ed.), International Conference ‘Wind Effects on Trees’ Germany.

Gardiner, B. A., Suárez, J., Quine, C. P. (2003). Development of a GIS based wind risk system for British forestry.In: Ruck, B., Kottmeier, C., Mattheck, C., Quine, C., Wilhelm, G. (Ed.), International Conference ‘Wind Effects on Trees’ Karlsruhe, Germany, pp. 145-150.

Brunet, Y., Fourcaud, T., Achim. A., Belcher, R., Calmet, I., Caltagirone, J. P., Cleugh, H., de Coligny, F., Delavance, M., Druilhet, A., Finnigan, J. J., Foudhil, H., Gamboa-Marrufo, M., Gardiner, B., Guyon, D., Hughes, D., Irvine, M., Lamaud, Lohou, F., Lopez, A., Marshall, B. J., Mestayer, P., Morse, A. Paw U, K. T., Raupach, M. R., Selier, D., Shaw, R. H., Soulier, D., Wood, C., Yang, B. (2003). The VENFOR Project: Wind and forest interactions from the tree scale to the landscape scale. In: Ruck, B., Kottmeier, C., Mattheck, C., Quine, C., Wilhelm, G. (Ed.), International Conference ‘Wind Effects on Trees’ Germany.

Palmer, H., Gardiner, B. Hislop, M. and Buttery, N. (2003). Trees for shelter – basic principles revisted. New Zealand Tree Grower, 24, 38-40.

Morse, A. and Gardiner, B. (2003). Understanding wind damage. Quart. J. of Forestry, 98, 55-58.

Quine, C. P. and Gardiner, B. A. (2002). Climate Change Impacts: Storms. In Climate Change: Impacts on UK Forests. M. Broadmeadow (ed), Bulletin 125, Forestry Commission, Edinburgh, pp 198.

Vosper, S. B., Mobbs, S. D. and Gardiner, B. A. (2002). Measurements of the near-surface flow over a hill. Q. J. R. Meteor. Soc., 128, 2257-2280.

Morse, A. P., Gardiner, B. A. and Marshall, B. J. (2002). Mechanisms controlling turbulence development across a forest edge. Boundary Layer Meteorology, 103, 227-251.

Marshall, B. J., Gardiner, B. A., Belcher, R. E. and Wood, C. J. (2002). Conditional sampling of forest canopy gusts. Boundary Layer Meteorology, 102, 225-251.

Moore, J. and Gardiner, B. (2001). Relative windfirmness of New Zealand-grown Pinus radiata and Douglas-fir: A preliminary investigation. New Zealand Journal of Forest Science, 31 (2), 208-223.

Brüchert, F. and Gardiner, B. (2000). Wind exposure effects on the mechanical properties of Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.). . In Plant Biomechanics 2000. H-C. Spatz and T. Speck (eds.), Thieme Verlag, Stuggart.

Gardiner, B. A. and Quine, C. P. (2000). The mechanical adaptation of trees to environmental influences. In Plant Biomechanics 2000. H-C. Spatz and T. Speck (eds.), Thieme Verlag, Stuggart.

Gardiner, B. A. and Quine, C. P. (2000). Management of forests to reduce the risk of abiotic damage – a review with particular reference to the effects of strong winds. Forest Ecology and Management, 135 (1-3), 261-277.

Gardiner, B. A. and Peltola, H. and Kellomaki, S. (2000). Comparison of two models for predicting the critical wind speeds required to damage coniferous trees. Ecological Modelling. 129 (1), 1-23.