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Glossary - F

Family
Large group of similar plants, made up of several genera.
Fastigate
Upward rising branches giving a narrowly compact tree crown.
Feller select
A type of selective thinning where the man felling the trees or operating the harvester chooses the trees to be thinned.
Felling
Cutting down trees, particularly mature trees.
Feral
A domesticated animal that now lives in the wild, e.g. goat.
Fertiliser
Substance added to improve growth on poor soil. Forest fertilisers used in Britain are either ground-up rock high in phosphate and potash or urea prills high in nitrogen.
Fire break
An unplanted strip left between plantations, or on their margins, which is kept clear of flammable vegetation in the early years.
Flushing
The bursting of buds in Spring.
Fomes
See Butt rot.
Food chain
The interconnecting links whereby green plants are eaten by animals, which in turn are eaten by other animals.
Forest
A large area dominated by trees, both conifers and broad-leaved, either planted or natural. Usually taken to include a complex landscape comprising of woodland, open space, water and settlements. See also wood or woodland.
Forest cost
The total cost of carrying out an operation at the Forest District. Includes labour, machine, materials plus costs of employing labour.
Forest Enterprise
The agency of the Forestry Commission responsible for managing the Forestry Commission's forest estate.
Forest Research
The agency of the Forestry Commission responsible for research and development, surveys and technical services to the Forestry Commission and the UK and international forest industry.
Forest floor
The comparatively clear ground under a closed-canopy forest.
Forest hygiene
Operational disciplines aimed at reducing the potential levels of forest pests and diseases.
Forestry
Management of forests and woods.
Forestry Commission
The government department responsible for forestry matters in Great Britain. The responsibility for Forestry is devolved to ministers in the Scottish Parliament and Welsh Government, but the executive functions are exercised throughout Great Britain by the Forestry Commission.
Forwarder
Tractor which extracts timber lifted entirely clear of the ground. The timber is carried on a linked trailer or integral rear bunk.