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Further reading

Further reading for Forests and Water, one of a series of seven Guidelines that support The UK Forestry Standard (UKFS).

Forestry Commission and Forest Research publications

Find Forestry Commission publications related to water
Find Forest Service publications related to water

Other publications


  • Forests and water: a thematic study prepared in the framework of the global forest resources assessment 2005. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, 2008.  
  • Forest hydrology: an introduction to water and forests. CRC, Boca Raton, Florida, 2006. 
  • How do forests influence water? IUFRO, Vienna, Austria, 2007.
  • River runners: freshwater pearl mussel, Atlantic salmon and lampreys. Scottish Natural Heritage, Battleby, Redgorton, Perth, 2003.
  • The role of forest management in controlling diffuse pollution from the afforestation and clearfelling of two public water supply catchments in Argyll, West Scotland. Forest Ecology and Management 158, 141-154, 2002.
  • The role of forest management in controlling diffuse pollution in UK forestry. Forest Ecology and Management 143, 215-226, 2001.
  • An overview of forest management and change with respect to environmental protection in the UK. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 8(3): 279-285, 2004.
  • Sustainability of UK forestry: contemporary issues for the protection of freshwaters, a conclusion. Hydrology & Earth System Sciences 8 (3), 589-595. 2004.
  • Development of eco-hydrological guidelines for wet woodland – Phase I. English Nature Research Report 619. English Nature, 2005.
  • Environmental best practice for continuous cover forestry. Environment Agency Science Report: SC020051/SR, 73 pp. Environment Agency, Bristol, 2006.
  • Warsaw Resolution 2: ‘Forests and water’. MCPFE Expert Level Meeting, 3-4 September 2007, Warsaw, 2007.  
  • Water, wetlands and forests: a review of ecological, economic and policy linkages. Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity and Secretariat of the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands, Montreal and Gland, 2009.
  • Guidance on site selection for brash removal. Forest Research, Farnham, 2009.
  • Stump harvesting: Interim Guidance on site selection and best practice. Forest Research, Farnham, 2009.
  • Woodland actions for biodiversity and their role in water management. Woodland Trust, Edinburgh, 2008.
  • Woodland for water: woodland measures for meeting WFD objectives. Summary of Final Report from Forest Research to the Environment Agency and Forestry Commission England. Environment Agency, Bristol, 2011.
  • Natural infrastructure: Investing in forested landscapes for source water protection in the United States. World Resources Institute (WRI) Report. WRI, Washington, 2013. 


  • Forests and surface water acidification. Department of the Environment, London, 1991. 
  • Recovery of lakes and streams in the UK from the effects of acid rain. UK Acid Waters Monitoring Network 20 year interpretative report. Environmental Change Research Centre, University College London, 2010. 
  • The impact of conifer harvesting and replanting on upland water quality. Environment Agency, Bristol, 1999.
  • The environmental impact of planting broadleaved trees on acid-sensitive soils – Literature Review. COFORD, Dublin, 2007.
  • Assessing the effect of broadleaf woodland expansion on acidic dry deposition and streamwater acidification. Forest Ecology and Management 262, 1434-1442, 2011.
  • The influence of forestry on acidification and recovery: Insights from long-term hydrochemical and invertebrate data. Ecological Indicators, doi:10.1016,j.ecolind.2011.12.011, 2012.
  • Modelling the long-term response of stream water chemistry to forestry in Galloway, Southwest Scotland. Ecological Indicators, Special Issue (published online February 2013).
  • Past acidification and recovery of surface waters, soils and ecology in the United Kingdom: Prospects for the future under current deposition and land use protocols. Ecological Indicators, Special Issue (published online February 2013). 

Climate change

  • Climate change and water. IPCC Secretariat, Geneva, 2008.
  • Protection of forest soils and water in a changing climate – management and policy challenges. In: Proceedings of the SAC and SEPA Biennial Conference held in Edinburgh 31 March – 1 April 2010; Climate, Water and Soil: Science, Policy and Practice (Eds K Crighton & Rebecca Audsley), p146-152, 2010.
  • Climate Change Risk Assessment for the Forestry Sector. Defra, London, 2012.
  • Climate Change Guidelines for Forest Managers. FAO Forestry Paper 172. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, 2013.
  • Terrestrial Biodiversity Climate Change Impacts Report Card 2012 -13. Living with Environmental Change, 2013.
  • Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Geneva, 2013.  


  • Review of impacts of rural land use and management on flood generation. Defra R&D Technical Report FD2114. Defra, London, 2004.
  • Forests and flood. Drowning in fiction or thriving on facts? FAO and CIFOR, Bangkok, Thailand and Bogor Barat, Indonesia, 2005. 
  • R&D update: review of the impact of land use and management on flooding. Environment Agency, Bristol, 2009.
  • The role of woodland in flood control - a landscape perspective. In: Water and landscape: the landscape ecology of freshwater systems. IALE(UK), Oxford. 118-125, 2006.
  • An assessment of the impact of floodplain woodland on flood flows. Water and Environment Journal, 21: 114-126, 2006.
  • Evaluating the effects of riparian woodland and large woody debris dams on peak flows in Pickering Beck, North Yorkshire. In: Proceedings of the Flood and Coastal Management, 2010 Conference, The International Centre, Telford 29 June-1 July 2010.
  • Modelling the hydraulic impact or reintroducing large woody debris into watercourses. Journal of Flood Risk Management, 2012.
  • Land use management effects on flood flows and sediments – guidance on prediction. CIRIA Report C179. CIRIA, London, 2013.

Fuel oils, lubricants and fire-fighting chemicals

  • Pollution prevention guidelines. Above ground oil storage tanks. PPG2. SEPA, Stirling, 2010. 
  • Pollution prevention guidelines. Managing fire water and major spillages. PPG18. Environment Agency, Bristol, (n.d.).
  • Pollution prevention guidelines. Dealing with spills: PPG22. Environment Agency, Bristol, 2011.
  • Pollution prevention guidelines. Incident response planning: PPG21. Environment Agency, Bristol, 2009. 
  • Pollution prevention guidelines. Safe storage and disposal of used oils. PPG8. Environment Agency, Bristol, 2004.
  • Pollution prevention guidelines. The safe operation of refuelling facilities: PPG7. Environment Agency, Bristol, 2011.
  • Pollution prevention guidelines. Drums and intermediate bulk containers: PPG26. Environment Agency, Bristol, 2011.
  • Pollution prevention guidelines. Vehicle washing and cleaning: PPG13. Environment Agency, Bristol, 2007.


  • Cypermethrin use in forestry and its impact on Welsh streams. Environment Agency Wales, Cardiff, 2010.
  • Monitoring of Cypermethrin use in Welsh forests 2011-2012. Environment Agency, Bristol, 2011.
  • Pesticides: code of practice for using plant protection products. Defra, London, 2006. 
  • Managing invasive non-native plants in or near freshwater. Environment Agency, Bristol, 2010.

Riparian management

  • Construction of river crossings. Engineering in the water environment good practice guide. SEPA, Stirling, 2008.
  • Large woody debris in British headwater rivers: physical habitat role and management guide. Environment Agency, Bristol, 1999.
  • Managing woody debris in rivers, streams & floodplains. Staffordshire Wildlife Trust, Stafford, 2006.
  • Fish live in trees too! Staffordshire Wildlife Trust, Stafford, 2010. 
  • Ponds, pools and lochans. Guidance on good practice in the management of small waterbodies in Scotland. SEPA, Scottish Environment Protection Agency, Stirling, 2000.
  • Restoring and managing native riparian woodlands. Scottish Native Woods, Aberfeldy, Perthshire, 2000  
  • The effect of riparian forest management on the freshwater environment. Forest Research, Farnham, Surrey and SNIFFER, Marlow, Bucks, 2002.
  • The effects of riparian forest management on the freshwater environment: a literature review of best management practice. Hydrology and Earth System Science, 8(3): 286-305, 2004.
  • The influence of riparian shade on lowland stream water temperatures in southern lowland England and their viability for brown trout. River Research and Applications DOI: 10.1002/rra.1354, 2010.

Sewage sludge

  • SEPA regulatory guidance: The use of sewage sludge on forestry and in the restoration of derelict land. SEPA, Stirling, 2010.

Water framework directive

  • The future for Scotland’s water. Guiding principles on the technical requirements of the water framework directive. SEPA, Stirling, 2002.
  • Woodland for water: woodland measures for meeting WFD objectives. Forest Research Monograph, 4. Forest Research, Surrey, 2011. 
  • The Water Environment (Controlled Activities) (Scotland) Regulations 2011 (as amended): a practical guide (version 7). SEPA, Stirling, 2013.

Water use

  • History of Forest Hydrology. Journal of Hydrology, 150, 189-216, 1993.
  • Hydrological impacts of broadleaf woodlands: Implications for water use and water quality. Institute of Hydrology, British Geological Survey Project Report 115/03/ST for the National Rivers Authority. Institute of Hydrology, Wallingford, 1992.
  • Study of the potential impacts on water resources of proposed afforestation. Trees and Drought Project on Lowland England – TaDPoLE. Loughborough University report to the Department for environment, food and rural affairs (Defra). Loughborough University, Loughborough. 2002.
  • Impact of lowland forests in England on water resources: Application of the Hydrological Land Use Change (HYLUC) model. Water Resources Research, 39, 1319-1328, 2003.
  • The impact of broadleaved woodland on water resources in lowland UK: III. The results from Black Wood and Bridgets Farm compared with those from other woodland and grassland sites. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 9, 614-620, 2005.
  • An evaluation of the impacts of energy tree plantations on water resources in the UK under present and future UKCIP02 climate scenarios. Water Resources Research, 45, 2009.