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Some essential definitions

Definition of Basic Material

Basic Material is the plant material from which the Forest Reproductive Material (FRM) is derived and includes seed stands, seed orchards, parent material held by tree breeders in archives, individual clones and mixtures of clones. There are six types of basic material: 
 

  • Seed sources
    This covers all material from a single tree to any collection of trees within a region of provenance or seed zone.  A map showing these regions is available (see below).
  • Stands
    Specifically identified areas or groups of trees with identified boundaries
  • Seed orchards 
    Sources based upon known individuals derived from tree breeding
  • Parents of families
    Sources based upon known individuals derived from tree breeding
  • Clones
    Individually identified trees from which the FRM will be produced through vegetative propagation
  • Clonal mixtures
    Individually identified trees from which the FRM will be produced through vegetative propagation

Categories of reproductive material
Forest Reproductive Material (FRM) is cones, fruits and seeds, all parts of plants obtained by vegetative propagation, including embryos and plants produced from any of these.  Normally, only FRM that comes from registered basic material can be marketed.  There are four categories of reproductive material according to the basic material from which it is collected:

  • Source identified FRM
    Comes from general or specific locations within a single region of provenance or seed zone altitude band in which no specific superior qualities are recognised.
  • Selected FRM
    Collected from stands showing superior characteristics, e.g. better form, growth rate and health. (Criteria for acceptance of basic material into this category)
  • Qualified FRM
    Derives from the selection of superior individual trees which have not undergone any form of testing.  
  • Tested FRM
    Derives from the selection of individual trees or stands that have undergone evaluation for genetic quality or have been shown to be superior, in comparison to accepted standards

Regions of Provenance
Great Britain is divided into four Regions of Provenance.  These are defined areas within which similar ecological and climatic characteristics are found.  They provide a framework for specifying sources of Forest Reproductive Material (FRM). 

For native species, these Regions of Provenance have been split into a total of 24 non-statutory native seed zones.  Seed zones are in turn divided where appropriate into two altitude zones, below 300m and above 300m.

There is a different set of seed zones for native Scots Pine.

Definitions of Origin and Provenance
The origin of FRM describes that part of the natural range of the species from which the material originally derived. The term provenance is used to describe the location of the source from which the reproductive material was collected.

For FRM puposes, the definition of “Marketing” is:

  • Displaying with a view to sale
  • Offering for sale
  • Selling; or
  • Delivering under a contract (other than on an agent and client basis) including a contract for the supply of services

It is compulsory for anyone marketing or supplying FRM to Register with the Forestry Commission as a supplier. The Forestry Commission maintains a Register of Suppliers. See marketing and supplying frm.

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  • There are six types of basic material
  • There are four categories of reproductive material

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Tree and shrub species controlled under the EU Directive and those certified on a voluntary basis

Forest Reproductive Material: Regulations controlling seed, cuttings and planting stock for forestry in Great Britain (1,762k - pdf)

Regions of Provenance Map (429k - pdf)

 

Last updated: 8th November 2016