There is much research that has helped us understand the role human activity plays in the spread of pest and disease.
Phytophora infestations in European nurseries
A sample of 732 nurseries in 18 European countries showed that nearly all (91.5%) had at least one species of phytopthora. Appropriate planning and careful sourcing can minimise the amount of infected stock and ensure that only healthy trees are planted.
The impact of dirty tools
Disease can be spread on our tools. In a Brazilian study, plots of unharvested eucalyptus had only a 2.7% occurrence of Ceratocystis wilt, but harvested plots had 39.7%. This suggests the disease had been spread on infected harvesting tools. In a USA study, Ceratocystis platani infected 40% of wounds made by saws previously used on diseased trees. Rates increased to 50% for climbing ropes.
Clean start, every day
In a study of seven sites, the rate of tree infection by Phytopthora lateralis reduced over 12 years from 29% to 0% where vehicles and boots were washed. Sites where no washing was done saw only limited reductions.
Time to act
In 2014/ 15 at least 300ha of woodland in England were felled to stop the spread of a pest or disease. A dramatic increase in the non-native pests and diseases over the last 10 years demonstrates that our nation’s woodlands and forests need greater protection.
Clean boots, clean forests
A study in a phytopthora control zone found that 30% of boots sampled contained infected organic material. Phytopthora can survive for more than a year in organic material increasing the change of it becoming established elsewhere if the material is moved. The cleaning of boots and vehicles bas been shown to successfully reduce the number of phytopthora sites and is therefore recommended.