- Susceptible species
- Outbreak stage and national plans
- Reporting suspect cases
- Managing infected trees
- The science
- Pest risk analysis
- Import & movement restrictions
- Further information
Preliminary results from testing of selected fungicides for treating ash trees with Chalara ash dieback for their efficacy in laboratory tests and field trials are now available on the Fera website.
Chalara dieback of ash, also known as Chalara or ash dieback, is a fungal disease of ash trees which causes leaf loss, crown dieback and bark lesions in affected trees. It is usually fatal, either directly, or indirectly by weakening the tree to the point where it succumbs more readily to attacks by other pests or pathogens, especially Armillaria fungi, or honey fungus.
Chalara is caused by a fungus called Hymenoscyphus fraxineus. This fungus has two phases to its life-cycle: sexual and asexual. The asexual stage, which grows in affected trees, attacking the bark and girdling twigs and branches, was the first to be described by science, and called Chalara fraxinea. This gave rise to the common name of the disease which it causes.
The sexual, reproductive stage, which was only discovered later, occurs on infected rachises, or stalks, of the previous year's fallen leaves. It was initially called Hymenoscyphus pseudoalbidus (H. pseudoalbidus) before a taxonomic revision suggested the name should be Hymenoscyphus fraxineus. The International Botanical Congress has also agreed that a single fungus should have only one name, even if different stages of the organism have previously been given separate names. Therefore Hymenoscyphus fraxineus is now widely accepted as the name to use.
Chalara dieback of ash has potential to cause significant damage among the UK's ash population. It has caused widespread damage to ash populations in continental Europe, including estimated losses of between 60 and 90 per cent of Denmark’s ash trees. Experience in other parts of Europe indicates that it can kill young ash trees very quickly (within one growing season of symptoms becoming visible) while older trees tend to resist it for some time until prolonged exposure, or another pest or pathogen attacking them in their weakened state, eventually causes them to succumb.
The Joint Nature Conservation Council (JNCC) in January 2014 published reports of studies into the potential ecological impact of Chalara ash dieback in the UK, and on the options for long-term monitoring of its impacts on biodiversity.
Chalara fraxinea is especially destructive of common or European ash (Fraxinus excelsior), including its ‘Pendula’ ornamental variety. Narrow-leaved ash (Fraxinus angustifolia) is also susceptible.
Local spread, up to some tens of miles, may be by wind. Over longer distances the risk of disease spread is most likely to be through the movement of diseased ash plants. Movement of logs or unsawn wood from infected trees might also be a pathway for the disease, although this is considered to be a low risk.
Ash trees suffering with the infection have been found widely across Europe since trees were first reported dying in large numbers in Poland in 1992. These have included forest trees, trees in urban areas such as parks and gardens, and also young trees in nurseries.
It was first confirmed in the UK in February 2012 when it was found in a consignment of infected trees sent from a nursery in the Netherlands to a nursery in Buckinghamshire, England.
In October 2012, Food & Environment Research Agency (FERA) scientists confirmed a small number of cases in Norfolk and Suffolk in ash trees at sites in the wider natural environment, including established woodland, which did not appear to have any association with recently supplied nursery stock. Further finds in trees in the wider environment have since been confirmed in a number of places, mostly on the eastern side of England and Scotland, and mostly concentrated in the east and south-east of England. In May 2013 the first wider-environment case was found in south-west Wales, which is the farthest west site in Britain that a wider-environment case has been confirmed.
C. fraxinea is treated as a quarantine pest under national emergency measures and any suspected sighting must be reported.
Plant health experts undertook a survey of about a thousand sites which had received saplings from nurseries where Chalara dieback has been found.
Confirmed findings at 6 January 2015
Nursery sites - 26
Recently planted sites - 398
Wider environment, e.g. established woodland - 525
Zoom in and out with the mouse wheel on the interactive map, and use the toggle tools, to display further layers of detail. Click on individual grid squares to bring up more local information.
Northern Ireland is not currently included on the interactive map because no cases have been confirmed in the wider environment there, but this will be reviewed if the situation changes.
Pest alert - for more information
Because ash trees have many genetic variants and occur right across the UK, they come into leaf at different times. Ash is also traditionally one of the last tree species to flush, sometimes taking as long as six weeks to do so, often as late as the end of May. Trees in the colder north flush later than trees in the warmer south. Some ash trees will break-bud, or flush, earlier than others, and some buds will produce flowers rather than new shoots. Some variation will be more apparent in older trees.
Some shoots on ash trees will fail to flush altogether, while others will flush normally before showing signs of ill-health or dieback later. These events might mean that the trees are damaged in some way, but shoot death and dieback in ash trees can have a number of causes.
So if an ash tree does not have any leaves on it in April and May, it does not necessarily mean that it is diseased or dying, but by mid-June all healthy ash should be in full leaf.
August and September are a good time of year to undertake surveys, because during autumn visual symptoms can be confused with leaves that are naturally changing colour.
In the autumn you might see clumps of sometimes dark-coloured ash keys (seeds), retained on the trees after the leaves have fallen. This is quite normal, but from a distance they can be mistaken for the blackened leaves which can be a symptom of the disease.
We are sorry that we are not able to respond to each report individually. However, every one of them will be assessed, and for each report we will:
- prioritise action according to our existing knowledge of the disease's distribution and
- decide it isn’t Chalara dieback of ash; or
- ask for more information, which might include asking for photographs; or
- arrange for someone to do a further investigation on site
- You are not required to take any particular action if you own infected ash trees, unless we or another plant health authority serves you with a statutory Plant Health Notice requiring action
- keep an eye on the trees' safety as the disease progresses, and prune or fell them if they or their branches threaten to cause injury or damage
- help slow the spread of the disease by removing and disposing of infected ash plants, and collecting up and burning (where permitted), burying or composting the fallen leaves.
Government scientists have set out the most up-to-date understanding of the disease. Their assessment concluded that:
the spores are unlikely to survive for more than a few days
spore dispersal on the wind is possible from mainland Europe
trees need a high dose of spores to become infected
spores are produced from infected dead leaves during June to September
there is a low probability of dispersal on clothing or animals and birds
the disease will attack any species of ash
the disease becomes obvious within months rather than years
wood products would not spread the disease if treated properly
once infected, trees can’t be cured
not all trees die of the infection - some are likely to have genetic resistance
Scientists are working to learn from existing and emerging research and practical experience in combating the disease in other countries. They are also approaching companies with proposed treatment solutions for Chalara to rapidly evaluate their research.
Our Forest Research agency is part of a consortium awarded £2.4m research funding to gather an in-depth understanding of the ash dieback fungus and to provide genetic clues about the natural resistance of some ash trees to attack. Forest Research is also leading a mass screening trial to identify inherent resistance in UK ash trees.
It is believed to have entered Britain on plants imported from nurseries in continental Europe. However, now that we have found infected older trees in East Anglia, Kent and Essex with no apparent connection with plants supplied by nurseries, we are also investigating the possibility that it might have entered by natural means. These include being carried on the wind or on birds coming across the North Sea and English Channel, or on items such as footwear, clothing or vehicles of people who had been in infected sites in Continental Europe.
According to the European Plant Protection Organization (EPPO), Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Lithuania, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Slovenia and Sweden have confirmed its presence. On the basis of symptoms, the disease has also been observed in Denmark, Estonia, Latvia and Switzerland.
Video: history of the pathogen.
A Pest Risk Analysis (PRA) was published in May 2013. (The document title uses the name of the sexual stage of the fungus, Hymenoscyphus pseudoalbidus.)
A Plant Health Order prohibits all imports of ash seeds, plants and trees, and all internal movement of ash seeds, plants and trees.
New requirements for statutory notification of imports of Ash, sweet chestnut, plane and oak.
England and Wales
Chalara helpline: 08459 33 55 77 (8am - 6pm daily) or email@example.com
Forestry Commission Scotland: 0131 314 6156 (9am - 5pm weekdays and out-of-hours messaging system) or
Last updated: 01/19/2015